Abstract

A spatial resolution of 20 nm is demonstrated at 2.07-nm wavelength by use of a soft x-ray microscope based on Fresnel zone plate lenses and partially coherent illumination. Nanostructural test patterns, formed by sputtered multilayer coatings and transmission electron microscopy thinning techniques, provide clear experimental results.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Errata

Weilun Chao, Erik Anderson, Gregory P. Denbeaux, Bruce Harteneck, J. Alexander Liddle, Deirdre L. Olynick, Angelic L. Pearson, Farhad Salmassi, ChengYu Song, and David T. Attwood, "20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures: erratum," Opt. Lett. 28, 2530-2530 (2003)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-28-24-2530

References

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  1. D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Susini, D. Joyeux, and F. Polack, eds., J. de Physique IV (EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France, 2003).
  3. W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Smith, Phys. Today 54(1), 29 (2001), www.als.lbl.gov.
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  6. P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schutz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G. Denbeaux, and D. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7159 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, 2002).
  12. For minimal aberration, the zone placement error should be limited to one third of the smallest zone width.
  13. E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. The central stop of a CZP creates a hollow-cone illumination with σ values from 0.21 to 0.42.

2002 (1)

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Smith, Phys. Today 54(1), 29 (2001), www.als.lbl.gov.
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schutz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G. Denbeaux, and D. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Olynick, E. H. Anderson, B. Harteneck, and E. Veklerov, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2896 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Kurtis, W. Meyer-Ilse, and P. J. M. Monteiro, Corros. Sci. 42, 1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, Science 286, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1987 (1)

K. K. H. Toh and A. R. Neureuther, Proc. SPIE 772, 202 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

J. C. Bravman and R. Sinclair, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 1, 53 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 217, 408 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

D. L. Olynick, E. H. Anderson, B. Harteneck, and E. Veklerov, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2896 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schutz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G. Denbeaux, and D. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Balhorn, R.

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Bates, B.

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bayreuther, G.

P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schutz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G. Denbeaux, and D. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, New York, 1999), pp. 441, 596–606.

Bravman, J. C.

J. C. Bravman and R. Sinclair, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 1, 53 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. T.

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, Science 286, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, W.

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denbeaux, G.

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schutz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G. Denbeaux, and D. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eimuller, T.

P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schutz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G. Denbeaux, and D. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eimüller, T.

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schutz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G. Denbeaux, and D. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 2000), pp. 303–324.

Gullikson, E. M.

Hamamoto, D.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hambach, D.

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B.

D. L. Olynick, E. H. Anderson, B. Harteneck, and E. Veklerov, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2896 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hettrick, M. C.

Hopkins, H. H.

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 217, 408 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Jochum, L.

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L.

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joyeux, D.

J. Susini, D. Joyeux, and F. Polack, eds., J. de Physique IV (EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France, 2003).

Knöchel, C.

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, M.

P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schutz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G. Denbeaux, and D. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, M.

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurtis, K. E.

K. E. Kurtis, W. Meyer-Ilse, and P. J. M. Monteiro, Corros. Sci. 42, 1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larabell, C.

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larabell, C. A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, 2002).

Le Gros, M. A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, 2002).

Legros, M.

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lelievre, S. A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucero, A.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, G. A.

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, Science 286, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medecki, H.

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, M. A.

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Ilse, W.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Kurtis, W. Meyer-Ilse, and P. J. M. Monteiro, Corros. Sci. 42, 1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, Science 286, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, P. J. M.

K. E. Kurtis, W. Meyer-Ilse, and P. J. M. Monteiro, Corros. Sci. 42, 1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moronne, M.

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

Myneni, S. C. B.

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, Science 286, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neureuther, A. R.

K. K. H. Toh and A. R. Neureuther, Proc. SPIE 772, 202 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K.

Olynick, D. L.

D. L. Olynick, E. H. Anderson, B. Harteneck, and E. Veklerov, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2896 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, A.

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, A. L.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polack, F.

J. Susini, D. Joyeux, and F. Polack, eds., J. de Physique IV (EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France, 2003).

Rudolph, D.

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

W. Meyer-Ilse, H. Medecki, L. Jochum, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, R. Balhorn, M. Moronne, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Synchrotron Radiat. News 8, 22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schutz, G.

P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schutz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G. Denbeaux, and D. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, G.

G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, W. Chao, T. Eimüller, L. Johnson, M. Köhler, C. Larabell, M. Legros, P. Fischer, A. Pearson, G. Schütz, D. Yager, and D. Attwood, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, R.

J. C. Bravman and R. Sinclair, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 1, 53 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N.

N. Smith, Phys. Today 54(1), 29 (2001), www.als.lbl.gov.
[CrossRef]

Stach, E. A.

G. Schneider, M. A. Meyer, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, C. Knöchel, D. Hambach, E. A. Stach, and E. Zschech, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 3089 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Susini, J.

J. Susini, D. Joyeux, and F. Polack, eds., J. de Physique IV (EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France, 2003).

Toh, K. K. H.

K. K. H. Toh and A. R. Neureuther, Proc. SPIE 772, 202 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

Veklerov, E.

D. L. Olynick, E. H. Anderson, B. Harteneck, and E. Veklerov, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2896 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, New York, 1999), pp. 441, 596–606.

Yager, D.

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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

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C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, 2002).

For minimal aberration, the zone placement error should be limited to one third of the smallest zone width.

The central stop of a CZP creates a hollow-cone illumination with σ values from 0.21 to 0.42.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, New York, 1999), pp. 441, 596–606.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the soft x-ray, full-field imaging microscope, XM-1, at the Advanced Light Source (ALS).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscope micrograph of a 25-nm outermost-zone-width MZP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Soft x-ray image of the (a) 24.3-nm half-period and (b) the 19.5-nm half-period multilayer test pattern taken at 600 eV (λ=2.07 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Lineout of the 24.3-nm half-period image shows a normalized modulation, averaged along the pattern, of 73–76%. (b) Lineout of the 19.5-nm half-period image shows a normalized modulation of 20%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated modulation transfer function for XM-1 with hollow-cone, partially coherent illumination. The measured modulations from Fig. 4 are also shown. The horizontal errors for 19.5- and 24.3-nm half-periods are ±0.2 and ±0.3 µm-1. The calculated resolution is 19 nm. A straight line through the two data points indicates that XM-1 has a resolution of 20 nm or 1.1 times the diffraction-limited performance.

Equations (1)

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σ=NAcNAi=ΔrMZPΔrCZP.

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