Abstract

We present a simplified, potentially portable, and highly efficient blue-light source from a periodically poled KTP waveguide crystal with a compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser. This light source generates 5.6 mW of blue average output power at 424 nm with 27 mW of incident fundamental in a single-pass extracavity arrangement at room temperature. The overall system efficiency of electrical power to blue light is 0.5%, and the internal second-harmonic generation conversion efficiency is as high as 37%. The slope efficiency of 5.5% pJ-1 at low pulse energies is, to our knowledge, the highest slope efficiency yet reported for frequency conversion into the blue spectral region.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Zhu, P. Li, J. T. Sage, and P. M. Champion, J. Lumin. 60, 503 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Express 10, 824 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Valentine, J.-M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, Opt. Lett. 22, 1639 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Commun. 205, 207 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 360 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Kopf, G. J. Spuhler, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Appl. Opt. 35, 912 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. B. Birkin, W. Sibbett, P. Battle, T. Fry, and D. Mohatt, Opt. Lett. 26, 1962 (2001).
  9. G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. S. Wang, V. Petrov, Y. J. Ding, Y. Zheng, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 873 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 839 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Routè, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 18, 194 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. M. Weiner, A. M. Kan'an, and D. E. Leaird, Opt. Lett. 23, 1441 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (5)

P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Commun. 205, 207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Express 10, 824 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Routè, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. B. Birkin, W. Sibbett, P. Battle, T. Fry, and D. Mohatt, Opt. Lett. 26, 1962 (2001).

1998 (3)

Y. S. Wang, V. Petrov, Y. J. Ding, Y. Zheng, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 873 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, A. M. Kan'an, and D. E. Leaird, Opt. Lett. 23, 1441 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

D. Kopf, G. J. Spuhler, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Appl. Opt. 35, 912 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Zhu, P. Li, J. T. Sage, and P. M. Champion, J. Lumin. 60, 503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Agate, B.

B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Express 10, 824 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Commun. 205, 207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrovski, A.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Routè, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, G. W.

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Battle, P.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. B. Birkin, W. Sibbett, P. Battle, T. Fry, and D. Mohatt, Opt. Lett. 26, 1962 (2001).

Birkin, D. J. L. B.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. B. Birkin, W. Sibbett, P. Battle, T. Fry, and D. Mohatt, Opt. Lett. 26, 1962 (2001).

Brown, C. T. A.

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Commun. 205, 207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Express 10, 824 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, D.

Cancio, P.

P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Catalano, M.

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Champion, P. M.

L. Zhu, P. Li, J. T. Sage, and P. M. Champion, J. Lumin. 60, 503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. H.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Marchi, G.

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

der Au, J. A.

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

Ding, Y. J.

Y. S. Wang, V. Petrov, Y. J. Ding, Y. Zheng, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 873 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Routè, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foulon, G.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Routè, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fry, T.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. B. Birkin, W. Sibbett, P. Battle, T. Fry, and D. Mohatt, Opt. Lett. 26, 1962 (2001).

Furukawa, Y.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Routè, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, F.

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gonella, F.

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guisfredi, G.

P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Haglund, Jr., R. F.

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, J.-M.

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Valentine, J.-M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, Opt. Lett. 22, 1639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kan'an, A. M.

Keller, U.

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Commun. 205, 207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, G. J. Spuhler, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Appl. Opt. 35, 912 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemp, A. J.

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Commun. 205, 207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Express 10, 824 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, G. T.

Khurgin, J. B.

Y. S. Wang, V. Petrov, Y. J. Ding, Y. Zheng, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 873 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Routè, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

Leaird, D. E.

Li, P.

L. Zhu, P. Li, J. T. Sage, and P. M. Champion, J. Lumin. 60, 503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Mazzoldi, P.

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoti, D.

P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohatt, D.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. B. Birkin, W. Sibbett, P. Battle, T. Fry, and D. Mohatt, Opt. Lett. 26, 1962 (2001).

Morier-Genoud, F.

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Y. S. Wang, V. Petrov, Y. J. Ding, Y. Zheng, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 873 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quaranta, A.

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E. U.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. B. Birkin, W. Sibbett, P. Battle, T. Fry, and D. Mohatt, Opt. Lett. 26, 1962 (2001).

Risk, W. P.

Y. S. Wang, V. Petrov, Y. J. Ding, Y. Zheng, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 873 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosenman, G.

P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Routè, R. K.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Routè, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sage, J. T.

L. Zhu, P. Li, J. T. Sage, and P. M. Champion, J. Lumin. 60, 503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Sibbett, W.

B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Express 10, 824 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Commun. 205, 207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. B. Birkin, W. Sibbett, P. Battle, T. Fry, and D. Mohatt, Opt. Lett. 26, 1962 (2001).

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Valentine, J.-M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, Opt. Lett. 22, 1639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spuhler, G. J.

Stormont, B.

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Commun. 205, 207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, G. J.

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Valentine, J.-M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, Opt. Lett. 22, 1639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valster, A.

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Valentine, J.-M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, Opt. Lett. 22, 1639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Wang, Y. S.

Y. S. Wang, V. Petrov, Y. J. Ding, Y. Zheng, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 873 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, A. M. Kan'an, and D. E. Leaird, Opt. Lett. 23, 1441 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

Zeppini, P.

P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

Y. S. Wang, V. Petrov, Y. J. Ding, Y. Zheng, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 873 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu, P. Li, J. T. Sage, and P. M. Champion, J. Lumin. 60, 503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. S. Wang, V. Petrov, Y. J. Ding, Y. Zheng, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 873 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Routè, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

L. Zhu, P. Li, J. T. Sage, and P. M. Champion, J. Lumin. 60, 503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

G. W. Arnold, G. De Marchi, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, A. Quaranta, G. Battaglin, M. Catalano, F. Garrido, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J.-M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Commun. 205, 207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

P. Zeppini, P. Cancio, G. Guisfredi, D. Mazzoti, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, and P. De Natale, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the single-pass, frequency-doubled mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser. 660, 685, pump laser diode wavelength; PC, polarization cube; HWP, half-wave plate; HR, high reflector; 1.5%, output coupler; TEC, thermoelectric cooler; ppKTP, waveguide doubling crystal. Corresponding (b) fundamental and (c) second-harmonic (SH) (blue) spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Generated blue average power and slope efficiency of the internal SHG process for the ppKTP waveguide crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Saturation of SHG efficiency in our waveguide ppKTP experiment. (b) Comparison of our ppKTP waveguide results with a similar SHG configuration with a bulk KNbO3 crystal2 at low pulse energies.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Our Results with Other Efficient Blue-Generation Experiments in Bulk and Waveguide Nonlinear Crystals

Equations (1)

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η=8π2deff22ε0cn3λ2WLαAeff,

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