Abstract

We report on severalfold increases in the output power of kinetically enhanced copper-vapor lasers operating in a regime of high specific input power and reduced tube insulation. Three laser tubes, of length 1 m and bore diameters 17.5, 25, and 32 mm, were investigated at constant input power. Output power of 104 W at 1.4% wall-plug efficiency was obtained for the largest tube. When the bore diameter was decreased to 17.5 mm, the output power and efficiency remained high (90 W at 1.0% efficiency), whereas the specific output power increased threefold. The output powers were as much as fivefold higher than those of previous small-scale (i.e., <25mm-diameter) copper lasers of any type.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, and G. G. Petrash, JETP Lett. 16, 27 (1972).
  2. S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Jones, A. Maitland, and C. E. Little, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 261 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Lett. 23, 1538 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonado, and C. E. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1041, 54 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. D. Marshall and D. W. Coutts, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 623 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. P. Mildren, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, to be published ().
  8. G. P. Hogan and C. E. Webb, Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 263 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Dushman, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique (Wiley, New York, 1962).
  10. C. E. Little, Metal Vapour Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1999).
  11. M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsely, Proc SPIE 3889, 511 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. P. Mildren, K. E. Osgood, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 991 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Isaev and M. A. Kazaryan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 253 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 1089 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Ref., p. 162.
  16. R. J. Carman, R. P. Mildren, J. A. Piper, G. D. Marshall, and D. W. Coutts, Proc. SPIE 4184, 215 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. P. Mildren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 592 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. P. Mildren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. J. Carman, R. P. Mildren, J. A. Piper, G. D. Marshall, and D. W. Coutts, Proc. SPIE 4184, 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsely, Proc SPIE 3889, 511 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. D. Marshall and D. W. Coutts, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Lett. 23, 1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. P. Mildren, K. E. Osgood, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 1089 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

D. R. Jones, A. Maitland, and C. E. Little, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Hogan and C. E. Webb, Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 263 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonado, and C. E. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1041, 54 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. A. Isaev and M. A. Kazaryan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, and G. G. Petrash, JETP Lett. 16, 27 (1972).

Andrews, A.

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsely, Proc SPIE 3889, 511 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benfield, R.

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsely, Proc SPIE 3889, 511 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blau, P.

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. J. W.

M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Lett. 23, 1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 1089 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carman, R. J.

R. J. Carman, R. P. Mildren, J. A. Piper, G. D. Marshall, and D. W. Coutts, Proc. SPIE 4184, 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coutts, D. W.

R. J. Carman, R. P. Mildren, J. A. Piper, G. D. Marshall, and D. W. Coutts, Proc. SPIE 4184, 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall and D. W. Coutts, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, to be published ().

Druckman, I.

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dushman, S.

S. Dushman, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique (Wiley, New York, 1962).

Gabay, S.

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hen, I.

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hogan, G. P.

G. P. Hogan and C. E. Webb, Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 263 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Horvitz, Z.

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Isaev, A. A.

A. A. Isaev and M. A. Kazaryan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, and G. G. Petrash, JETP Lett. 16, 27 (1972).

Jones, D. R.

D. R. Jones, A. Maitland, and C. E. Little, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kazaryan, M. A.

A. A. Isaev and M. A. Kazaryan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, and G. G. Petrash, JETP Lett. 16, 27 (1972).

Kearsely, A.

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsely, Proc SPIE 3889, 511 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, M.

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsely, Proc SPIE 3889, 511 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lando, M.

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, R. R.

R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonado, and C. E. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1041, 54 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Little, C. E.

D. R. Jones, A. Maitland, and C. E. Little, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Little, Metal Vapour Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Maitland, A.

D. R. Jones, A. Maitland, and C. E. Little, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado, G.

R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonado, and C. E. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1041, 54 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

R. J. Carman, R. P. Mildren, J. A. Piper, G. D. Marshall, and D. W. Coutts, Proc. SPIE 4184, 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall and D. W. Coutts, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, to be published ().

Mildren, R. P.

R. P. Mildren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Carman, R. P. Mildren, J. A. Piper, G. D. Marshall, and D. W. Coutts, Proc. SPIE 4184, 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, K. E. Osgood, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, to be published ().

Miron, E.

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, K. E.

R. P. Mildren, K. E. Osgood, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrash, G. G.

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, and G. G. Petrash, JETP Lett. 16, 27 (1972).

Piper, J. A.

R. J. Carman, R. P. Mildren, J. A. Piper, G. D. Marshall, and D. W. Coutts, Proc. SPIE 4184, 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Lett. 23, 1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, K. E. Osgood, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 1089 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, to be published ().

Smilanski, I.

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Webb, C. E.

G. P. Hogan and C. E. Webb, Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 263 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonado, and C. E. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1041, 54 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Lett. 23, 1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 1089 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, to be published ().

Yfrah, Y.

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. P. Mildren, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, to be published ().

R. P. Mildren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. D. Marshall and D. W. Coutts, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, and G. G. Petrash, JETP Lett. 16, 27 (1972).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. P. Hogan and C. E. Webb, Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 263 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (4)

S. Gabay, P. Blau, M. Lando, I. Druckman, Z. Horvitz, Y. Yfrah, I. Hen, E. Miron, and I. Smilanski, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Jones, A. Maitland, and C. E. Little, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, K. E. Osgood, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Withford, D. J. W. Brown, and J. A. Piper, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 1089 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc SPIE (1)

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsely, Proc SPIE 3889, 511 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. J. Carman, R. P. Mildren, J. A. Piper, G. D. Marshall, and D. W. Coutts, Proc. SPIE 4184, 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonado, and C. E. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1041, 54 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Isaev and M. A. Kazaryan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Ref., p. 162.

S. Dushman, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique (Wiley, New York, 1962).

C. E. Little, Metal Vapour Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1999).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Output power × plotted as a function of the tube’s bore diameter. Results are compared with a survey6,10-14 of previously reported output power per meter of active length for KE-CVLs, Cu HyBrID lasers, CVLs, and CuBr lasers with H2 additives. Dashed lines, maximum output power obtained previously by halogen-enhanced Cu lasers in present and previous studies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Green (G) and yellow (Y) near-field beam profiles for 17.5-mm (dashed curves) and 32-mm (solid curves) laser tubes operating with flat–flat resonators.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance Characteristics of Three Laser Tubes under Operating Conditions of Maximum Output Power

Equations (1)

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dTdrr=1=-P2πlK,

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