Abstract

We present a dual-axes confocal microscope that employs postobjective scanning and low-coherence heterodyne detection to collect vertical cross-sectional images from biological tissue with high axial resolution, reduced noise from scattered light, deep tissue penetration, and a large dynamic range. This architecture can be scaled down to millimeter dimensions with microelectromechanical systems technology for performance of in vivo optical biopsy.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

1999

1996

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. M. Crawford, in Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, R. S. Cotran, ed., 6th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1999), p. 781.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

With dual axes, low-N.A. objectives focus the illumination beam into the tissue and collect the reflected light off axis. The total axial resolution (the length of the black oval) is significantly improved, and noise from light scattered along the illumination beam (the checkered area) is reduced.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of optical circuit. Details are discussed in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Postobjective scanning with the scan mirror (SM) located distal to the objectives (IO, CO) is made possible by the long WD and is used to collect vertical cross-sectional images in the yz plane. T, tissue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The calculated response to a plane reflecting mirror is shown with different intensity apodizations of a Gaussian beam (percentage of peak intensity in parentheses). The dynamic range of the dual-axes (DA) configuration is superior to that of a conventional single-axis (SA) confocal microscope with same axial resolution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The squamoneocolumnar metaplastic junction of resected human esophagus is shown in a composite reflectance image over a depth of 1 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histology showing squamous epithelium (EP) and muscularis mucosa (MM) on the left, columnar mucosa with pit epithelium (PE) on the right, and submucosa (SM) and muscularis propria (MP) on both sides.

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