Abstract

Modal cutoff is investigated experimentally in a series of high-quality nonlinear photonic crystal fibers. We demonstrate a suitable measurement technique with which to determine the cutoff wavelength and verify the technique by inspecting the near field of the modes that may be excited below and above the cutoff. We observe a double-peak structure in the cutoff spectra, which is attributed to splitting of the higher-order modes. The cutoff is measured for seven different fiber geometries with different pitches and relative hole sizes, and very good agreement with recent theoretical work is found.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

Argyros, A.

Atkin, D. M.

Bassett, I.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, in Vol. 2 of 2001 IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 707–708.

Botton, L. C.

de Sterke, C. M.

Folkenberg, J. R.

Ghatak, A. K.

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, K. P.

Jensen, J. R.

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, in Vol. 2 of 2001 IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 707–708.

Knight, J. C.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Large, M. C. J.

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).

McPhedran, R. C.

Mortensen, N. A.

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Nielsen, M. D.

N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, and K. P. Hansen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1879 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, in Vol. 2 of 2001 IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 707–708.

Ranka, J. K.

Russell, P. St. J.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).

Steel, M. J.

Stentz, A. J.

Thyagarajan, K.

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1998).
[CrossRef]

van Eijkelenborg, M.

Vienne, G.

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, in Vol. 2 of 2001 IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 707–708.

White, T. P.

Windeler, R. S.

Zagari, J.

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

P. St. J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1998).
[CrossRef]

CEI/IEC International Standard 793–1-C7A, “Cut-off wavelength measurement for single-mode fibre” (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, 1995).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, in Vol. 2 of 2001 IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 707–708.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, histogram of the relative hole size distribution in the four inner rings and the nine rings of the cladding. Right, scaled microscope picture of fiber #1; see Table 1 for the spatial dimensions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Right axis, transmission spectra of 0.5 m (dashed curve) and 3.0 m (solid curve) of fiber 1. Left axis, difference of the transmission spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field images recorded at the output of 2.0 m of fiber 1. (a) Fundamental mode at 635 nm, (b) and (c) higher-order modes at 635 nm, (d) fundamental mode at 780 nm, (e) and (f) higher-order modes at 780 nm, (g) fundamental mode at 987 nm, (h) the only observed higher-order mode at 987 nm, (i) fundamental mode at 1550 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The plotted points show the relative cutoff wavelength, λcutoff/Λ, as a function of the relative hole size of the fibers investigated here. The solid (open) circles indicate the short- (long-) wavelength cutoff. The solid curve shows Eq. (1).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Pitches, Λ, and Relative Air-Hole Diameters, d/Λ, of the Seven Investigated Fibersa

Equations (1)

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λcutoff/Λαd/Λ-0.406γ,

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