Abstract

The continuous-wave oscillation of a tunnel ring fiber laser is demonstrated. The high losses encountered in tunneling systems are compensated for by a high-gain amplifying medium from barrier widths for 0 to λ/2. The experimental observations are in good agreement with a simple theoretical model. This near-field probe system allows one to detect small displacements in the picometer range.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Le Floch, L. Dutriaux, and F. Bretenaker, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 1, 639 (2000).
  2. Isaac Newton, Opticks, London, 1730 (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1952).
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    [CrossRef]
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  6. M.-C. Park and S.-W. Kim, Opt. Lett. 26, 420 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Rodrigo, M. Lim, and S. Saloma, Opt. Lett. 27, 25 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

P. J. Rodrigo, M. Lim, and S. Saloma, Opt. Lett. 27, 25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Gaikovich, A. N. Reznik, V. L. Vaks, and N. V. Yurasova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 104302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

E. Georgiou, O. Musset, J.-P. Boquillon, B. Denker, and S. E. Sverchkov, Opt. Commun. 198, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Park and S.-W. Kim, Opt. Lett. 26, 420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Le Floch, L. Dutriaux, and F. Bretenaker, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 1, 639 (2000).

1990 (1)

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

Blackford, B. L.

Boquillon, J.-P.

E. Georgiou, O. Musset, J.-P. Boquillon, B. Denker, and S. E. Sverchkov, Opt. Commun. 198, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).

Breen, S.

Bretenaker, F.

A. Le Floch, L. Dutriaux, and F. Bretenaker, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 1, 639 (2000).

Carminati, R.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carniglia, C. K.

Chen, Y.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denker, B.

E. Georgiou, O. Musset, J.-P. Boquillon, B. Denker, and S. E. Sverchkov, Opt. Commun. 198, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dutriaux, L.

A. Le Floch, L. Dutriaux, and F. Bretenaker, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 1, 639 (2000).

Gaikovich, K. P.

K. P. Gaikovich, A. N. Reznik, V. L. Vaks, and N. V. Yurasova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 104302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Georgiou, E.

E. Georgiou, O. Musset, J.-P. Boquillon, B. Denker, and S. E. Sverchkov, Opt. Commun. 198, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jericho, M. H.

Joulain, K.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-W.

Le Floch, A.

A. Le Floch, L. Dutriaux, and F. Bretenaker, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 1, 639 (2000).

Lim, M.

Mainguy, S.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, L.

Marcuse, D.

Mulet, J.-P.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musset, O.

E. Georgiou, O. Musset, J.-P. Boquillon, B. Denker, and S. E. Sverchkov, Opt. Commun. 198, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Newton, Isaac

Isaac Newton, Opticks, London, 1730 (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1952).

Park, M.-C.

Paton, B. E.

Reznik, A. N.

K. P. Gaikovich, A. N. Reznik, V. L. Vaks, and N. V. Yurasova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 104302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, P. J.

Saloma, S.

Sverchkov, S. E.

E. Georgiou, O. Musset, J.-P. Boquillon, B. Denker, and S. E. Sverchkov, Opt. Commun. 198, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaks, V. L.

K. P. Gaikovich, A. N. Reznik, V. L. Vaks, and N. V. Yurasova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 104302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).

Yurasova, N. V.

K. P. Gaikovich, A. N. Reznik, V. L. Vaks, and N. V. Yurasova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 104302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris (1)

A. Le Floch, L. Dutriaux, and F. Bretenaker, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 1, 639 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Nature (1)

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Georgiou, O. Musset, J.-P. Boquillon, B. Denker, and S. E. Sverchkov, Opt. Commun. 198, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. P. Gaikovich, A. N. Reznik, V. L. Vaks, and N. V. Yurasova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 104302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).

Isaac Newton, Opticks, London, 1730 (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1952).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup: d, width of the optical barrier; θ, polishing angle of the fiber. (b) Spectrum of the laser as analyzed by a Fabry–Perot interferometer: FSR, free spectral range of the interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized experimental output power of the tunnel laser versus d for three polishing angles as shown by the points. Solid curves are the corresponding theoretical curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response of the system for several amplitude modulations of d.

Equations (2)

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τφ=1-rTM2exp-αd1-rTM2 exp-2αd,
α=2πλn2 sin2φ-11/2.

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