Abstract

Experimental verification of the ability to alter the sensitivity to fluorophore layers in turbid media by varying illumination-collection geometry is presented. Fiber-optic probes and two-layer, fluorophore-doped, turbid phantoms are used to elucidate the roles of spot size, illumination–collection fiber separation, and probe–sample spacing. Variations in single- and multiple-fiber probe design parameters produce significant changes in the relative sensitivity to sample layers in a manner that agrees with prior computational studies.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, Appl. Opt. 41, 4712 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, Appl. Opt. 37, 2755 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 269 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Quan and N. Ramanujam, Opt. Lett. 27, 104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, Appl. Opt. 37, 2755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ballini, J. P.

G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braichotte, D.

G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.

G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Criswell, G.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, Appl. Opt. 41, 4712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T. J.

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

Gardner, C.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hull, E. L.

Hyde, D. E.

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malpica, A.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichols, M. G.

Nishioka, N. S.

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, Appl. Opt. 41, 4712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pfefer, J.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pfefer, T. J.

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, Appl. Opt. 41, 4712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quan, L.

Ramanujam, N.

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K. T.

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, Appl. Opt. 41, 4712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Utke, N.

G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Utzinger, U.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Bergh, H.

G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wagnieres, G.

G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wagnieres, G. A.

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Warren, S.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zellweger, M.

G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

G. Wagnieres, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of fiber-optic probe design parameters and fluorescence light propagation in a two-layer phantom for single- and multiple-fiber probe geometries. In all experiments the superficial layer was doped with fluorescein, and the deeper layer, with Rhodamine.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-fiber probe results regarding the effect of fiber diameter D on detected fluorescence for superficial layer thicknesses T of (a) 0.3 mm and (b) 0.6 mm. All spectra in this and other figures are normalized to the total detected intensity from 475 to 650 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-fiber probe results regarding the effect of changes in spot size D on peak fluorescence ratio. Spot size was calculated as a function of fiber diameter D and probe–sample spacing S by use of Eq. (1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multiple-fiber probe results regarding the effect of source–collection fiber spacing L on detected fluorescence. A single curve L=0.23 mm is shown for 0.3-mm-thick superficial layer T, since the spectra for the other fibers showed minimal differences.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multiple-fiber probe results regarding the effect of probe–sample spacing S on fluorescence detected at L=0.23 mm for a phantom with a 0.6-mm-thick superficial layer T.

Equations (1)

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D=D+2S tansin-1NA.

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