Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel technique, which we term bifocal optical coherence refractometry, for the rapid determination of the refractive index of a turbid medium. The technique is based on the simultaneous creation of two closely spaced confocal gates in a sample. The optical path-length difference between the gates is measured by means of low-coherence interferometry and used to determine the refractive index. We present experimental results for the refractive indices of milk solutions and of human skin in vivo. As the axial scan rate determines the acquisition time, which is potentially of the order of tens of milliseconds, the technique has potential for in vivo refractive-index measurements of turbid biological media under dynamic conditions.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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2001

A. Jaaskelainen, K.-E. Peiponen, and J. A. Raty, J. Dairy Sci. 84, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

D. Tentori, J. Camacho, and C. Lopez-Famozo, Opt. Commun. 103, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

Alfano, R.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boehlau-Godau, M.

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Camacho, J.

D. Tentori, J. Camacho, and C. Lopez-Famozo, Opt. Commun. 103, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duck, F. A.

F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue: A Comprehensive Reference Book (Academic, London, 1990).

FitzGerald, J. B.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gan, X.

Gu, M.

Haruna, M.

Hashimoto, M.

Hee, M. R.

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jaaskelainen, A.

A. Jaaskelainen, K.-E. Peiponen, and J. A. Raty, J. Dairy Sci. 84, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knuttel, A.

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Famozo, C.

D. Tentori, J. Camacho, and C. Lopez-Famozo, Opt. Commun. 103, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, H.

Mitsuyama, T.

Ohmi, M.

Peiponen, K.-E.

A. Jaaskelainen, K.-E. Peiponen, and J. A. Raty, J. Dairy Sci. 84, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raty, J. A.

A. Jaaskelainen, K.-E. Peiponen, and J. A. Raty, J. Dairy Sci. 84, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

A. V. Zvyagin, J. B. FitzGerald, K. K. M. B. D. Silva, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Silva, K. K. M. B. D.

A. V. Zvyagin, J. B. FitzGerald, K. K. M. B. D. Silva, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

Tajiri, H.

Tearney, G. J.

Tentori, D.

D. Tentori, J. Camacho, and C. Lopez-Famozo, Opt. Commun. 103, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zvyagin, A. V.

A. V. Zvyagin, J. B. FitzGerald, K. K. M. B. D. Silva, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dairy Sci.

A. Jaaskelainen, K.-E. Peiponen, and J. A. Raty, J. Dairy Sci. 84, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. Tentori, J. Camacho, and C. Lopez-Famozo, Opt. Commun. 103, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rep. Prog. Phys.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Miller and A. Rogan, eds., Laser-Induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995).

F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue: A Comprehensive Reference Book (Academic, London, 1990).

V. Tuchin, ed., Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 2002).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental response to a stepped mirror in air and corresponding theoretical axial intensity distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial response for a 20% milk solution with theoretical curves fitted to the confocal peaks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Axial response for the stratum corneum of the thick skin on the dorsal surface of a human thumb in vivo. Inset: Optical coherence tomography image of the corresponding skin section.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δlopt=nfobj-aNA2n2-1+n21/2-fobj-a-ΔlNA2fobj4n2-1+nfΔl21/2fΔl,
Ilr0Rlshls1/2SΔlidls.
IlrSΔli.

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