Abstract

A major drawback in polarization gating of light backscattered from tissue is that surface reflections dominate the image. An optically flat plate and matching fluid applied to the tissue surface, combined with off-axis detection, were previously used to address this problem. This approach is often inappropriate or inconvenient for practical use and more importantly can affect the tissue’s optical properties. A method is demonstrated that combines images obtained with linearly and circularly polarized light to produce a polarization-gated image that is free from surface reflections and does not require optically flat plates or matching fluid.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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2002 (1)

I. M. Stockford, S. P. Morgan, P. C. Y. Chang, and J. G. Walker, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nature Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

R. R. Anderson, Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilek, P.

W. Stolz, O. Braun-Falco, P. Bilek, M. Landthaler, and A. B. Cognetta, Color Atlas of Dermatoscopy (Blackwell Science, Oxford, England, 1993).

Bonner, R. F.

Bouma, G. J.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nature Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Braun-Falco, O.

W. Stolz, O. Braun-Falco, P. Bilek, M. Landthaler, and A. B. Cognetta, Color Atlas of Dermatoscopy (Blackwell Science, Oxford, England, 1993).

Chang, P. C. Y.

I. M. Stockford, S. P. Morgan, P. C. Y. Chang, and J. G. Walker, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cognetta, A. B.

W. Stolz, O. Braun-Falco, P. Bilek, M. Landthaler, and A. B. Cognetta, Color Atlas of Dermatoscopy (Blackwell Science, Oxford, England, 1993).

Demos, S. G.

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

Groner, W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nature Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harris, A. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nature Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ince, C.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nature Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khong, M. P.

Landthaler, M.

W. Stolz, O. Braun-Falco, P. Bilek, M. Landthaler, and A. B. Cognetta, Color Atlas of Dermatoscopy (Blackwell Science, Oxford, England, 1993).

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

MacKintosh, F. C.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Messmer, K.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nature Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. P.

Nadeau, R. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nature Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

Ridgway, M. E.

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Somekh, M. G.

Stockford, I. M.

I. M. Stockford, S. P. Morgan, P. C. Y. Chang, and J. G. Walker, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolz, W.

W. Stolz, O. Braun-Falco, P. Bilek, M. Landthaler, and A. B. Cognetta, Color Atlas of Dermatoscopy (Blackwell Science, Oxford, England, 1993).

Walker, J. G.

I. M. Stockford, S. P. Morgan, P. C. Y. Chang, and J. G. Walker, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, D. A.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Winkelman, J. W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nature Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. X.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson, Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

I. M. Stockford, S. P. Morgan, P. C. Y. Chang, and J. G. Walker, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature Med. (1)

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nature Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Stolz, O. Braun-Falco, P. Bilek, M. Landthaler, and A. B. Cognetta, Color Atlas of Dermatoscopy (Blackwell Science, Oxford, England, 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Linear illumination and detection, (b) circular illumination and detection. Polarization-maintaining light is localized in region 1, whereas multiple-scattered light propagates through deeper tissues (region 2). Circular polarization discriminates between polarization-maintaining and surface-reflected light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of an object located at different depths (first column, 2 MFPs; second column, 10 MFPs; third column, 22 MFPs) for different polarization gates (row 1, linear-polarization gate; row 2, circular-polarization gate; row 3, multiple-scattered light).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of a lentigo in (a) channel 1, (b) channel 2, (c) channel 3, (d) channel 4, (e) channel 1– channel 2, (f) channel 3–channel 2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Polarization-Discrimination Detection Schemes

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