Abstract

The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, χ3, of composite films consisting of nanocrystalline Au and ZnO particles were investigated by use of a degenerate four-wave mixing scheme. The maximum value of χ3, measured at a laser wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse duration of 70 ps, was 2×10-6esu. Also, this χ3 value was achieved with small absorption (the surface-plasmon peak was at the 615-nm wavelength). Our composite materials showed no discernible degradation after they were subjected to irradiation for a total of 3×107 high-intensity pulses (24 Mw/cm2, 70-ps pulse duration at 500 Hz) during 16 h of testing.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonos, A. K. Petford-Long, D. M. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

1995 (2)

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[Crossref]

M. J. Weber, ed., Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Suppl. 2: Optical Material.

1994 (2)

S. Ogawa, Y. Hayashi, N. Kobayashi, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L331 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. I. Sakai, Phase Conjugate Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994).

1991 (1)

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, and P. Rousignol, Progress in Optics XXIX E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991).

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Afonos, C. N.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonos, A. K. Petford-Long, D. M. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ballesteros, J. M.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonos, A. K. Petford-Long, D. M. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969 (2002).
[Crossref]

Flytzanis, C.

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, and P. Rousignol, Progress in Optics XXIX E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991).

D. Ricard, P. Roussignol, and C. Flytzanis, Opt. Lett. 10, 511 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, J. S.

Hache, F.

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, and P. Rousignol, Progress in Optics XXIX E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991).

Haglund, Jr., R. F.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonos, A. K. Petford-Long, D. M. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, Y.

S. Ogawa, Y. Hayashi, N. Kobayashi, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L331 (1994).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. C.

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, and P. Rousignol, Progress in Optics XXIX E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991).

Kobayashi, N.

S. Ogawa, Y. Hayashi, N. Kobayashi, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L331 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[Crossref]

Liao, H. B.

Lu, Y.

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, A.

S. Ogawa, Y. Hayashi, N. Kobayashi, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L331 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, S.

S. Ogawa, Y. Hayashi, N. Kobayashi, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L331 (1994).
[Crossref]

Osborne, D. M.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonos, A. K. Petford-Long, D. M. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445 (1997).
[Crossref]

Petford-Long, A. K.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonos, A. K. Petford-Long, D. M. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ricard, D.

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, and P. Rousignol, Progress in Optics XXIX E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991).

D. Ricard, P. Roussignol, and C. Flytzanis, Opt. Lett. 10, 511 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousignol, P.

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, and P. Rousignol, Progress in Optics XXIX E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991).

Roussignol, P.

Sakai, J. I.

J. I. Sakai, Phase Conjugate Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994).

Serna, R.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonos, A. K. Petford-Long, D. M. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Solis, J.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonos, A. K. Petford-Long, D. M. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

Tokizaki, T.

S. Ogawa, Y. Hayashi, N. Kobayashi, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L331 (1994).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, W.

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wong, G. K. L.

Wong, K. S.

Xiao, R. F.

Yang, G.

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonos, A. K. Petford-Long, D. M. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Ogawa, Y. Hayashi, N. Kobayashi, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L331 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (6)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

J. I. Sakai, Phase Conjugate Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994).

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, and P. Rousignol, Progress in Optics XXIX E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991).

M. J. Weber, ed., Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Suppl. 2: Optical Material.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD pattern for Au/ZnO composite films. A, the as-deposited film; the other films are annealed at B, 450 °C for 2 h; C, 750 °C for 2 h; D, 950 °C for 2 h; E, 950 °C for 10 h; and F, 1050 °C for 2 h.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Selected cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy pictures of the Au/ZnO films at various stages of annealing: A, as-deposited film; B, annealing at 300 °C for 2 h; C, annealing at 750 °C for 2 h; and D, annealing at 1050 °C for 2 h.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical density of the Au/ZnO films. Curve A, as-deposited film; curves B, C, D, E, and F, films annealed for 2 h at 300, 600, 750, 950, and 1050 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Co-plot of measured χ3 and FOM versus annealing temperature. The squares represent χ3, while the stars denote FOM. The solid and dashed curves are to guide the eye. Inset, relationship between the annealing temperature and the particle sizes of Au (circles) and ZnO (triangles).

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