Abstract

Intense directional light emission from a deformed square-shaped organic light-emitting microring cavity was observed. The ring cavity was a dye-doped organic–inorganic hybrid glass film coated upon a square-shaped fiber. From the near-field and far-field emission patterns and their emission spectra we found, for the first time to our knowledge, the simultaneous existence of chaotic whispering-gallery modes and four-bounce reflection modes. The two types of mode have different emission directions, different lasing thresholds, and different spectral linewidths. High-contrast angle-modulated light emission was also observed. We could control modulation and angular spread of emission by controlling the deformation of the cavity.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2001

2000

S. Chang, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Du, T. Touam, L. Degachi, J. L. Guilbault, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najaf, Opt. Eng. 37, 1101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1986

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, Science 231, 486 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. P.

X. M. Du, T. Touam, L. Degachi, J. L. Guilbault, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najaf, Opt. Eng. 37, 1101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

A. W. Poon, F. Courvoisier, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 26, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nockel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, Science 231, 486 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

S. Chang, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nockel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courvoisier, F.

Degachi, L.

X. M. Du, T. Touam, L. Degachi, J. L. Guilbault, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najaf, Opt. Eng. 37, 1101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Du, X. M.

X. M. Du, T. Touam, L. Degachi, J. L. Guilbault, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najaf, Opt. Eng. 37, 1101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, N.

Faist, J.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, H. L.

Guilbault, J. L.

X. M. Du, T. Touam, L. Degachi, J. L. Guilbault, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najaf, Opt. Eng. 37, 1101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

Knight, J. C.

Lefevre, V.

Leventhal, D. K.

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. U. Nockel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Najaf, S. I.

X. M. Du, T. Touam, L. Degachi, J. L. Guilbault, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najaf, Opt. Eng. 37, 1101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nockel, J. U.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nockel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poon, A. W.

Qian, S.-X.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, Science 231, 486 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snow, J. B.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, Science 231, 486 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

S. Chang, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nockel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Touam, T.

X. M. Du, T. Touam, L. Degachi, J. L. Guilbault, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najaf, Opt. Eng. 37, 1101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, H.-M.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, Science 231, 486 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

S. Chang, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

X. M. Du, T. Touam, L. Degachi, J. L. Guilbault, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najaf, Opt. Eng. 37, 1101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Mekis, J. U. Nockel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, Science 231, 486 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nockel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Ch, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)–(c) Top view images of microring cavities with different deformations. The bright areas are the cavities. Missing sides are due to fiber cutting. (d) Schematic diagram of the cross section of the cavity shown in (a). The shaded area is the cross section of the cavity. h=8 µm is the thickness of the film at side center, a=204 µm is the side length of the square fiber, and r=328 µm is the arc radius.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far-field emission patterns and their optical spectra. The fiber with the cavity was placed in the Z direction. The pump came in the X direction, a screen was placed in the XZ plane and 11 cm from the cavity, and the image on the screen was recorded by a CCD camera. We obtained the spectra by collecting light emission at spots A and B, using a fiber bundle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field emission images observed at ϕ=-31°, 0°, 31° (A, B, and C, respectively), where ϕ is the angle in the XY plane with respect to the Y axis. The pumping configuration and the cavity orientation are the same as in Fig. 2. A microscope was connected to a CCD detector in the XY plane rotated about the cavity to permit images to be taken in different emitting directions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Close-up far-field emission pattern. Note that the fiber orientation was turned 45° with respect to that in Figs. 2 and 3. A, B, C, cavities in Figs. 1(a), 1(b), and 1(c), respectively. Angles Ψ were converted from the screen–fiber distance and the distance on the screen starting from the center of the pattern. 0° is on the Y axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a, b, c, CWGM emission spectra with pump power below threshold, above threshold, and much higher than threshold, respectively. Inset, dependence of output power on input excitation for two types of mode, FBRMs (filled squares) and CWGMs (open squares).

Equations (1)

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2πnλ=πamx2+my21/2,

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