Abstract

An improved spectral optical coherence tomography technique is used to obtain cross-sectional ophthalmic images at an exposure time of 64 µs per A-scan. This method allows real-time images as well as static tomograms to be recorded in vivo.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. M. Rollins andJ. A. Izatt, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 99–125.
  4. E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 359–385.
  7. G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).
  9. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).
  11. M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, P. Targowski, and I. Gorczyńska, Opt. Appl. 32, 569 (2002).
  12. American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z 136.1 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1993).

2002

A. M. Rollins andJ. A. Izatt, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 99–125.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, P. Targowski, and I. Gorczyńska, Opt. Appl. 32, 569 (2002).

C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 359–385.

1998

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z 136.1 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1993).

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 359–385.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

Gorczynska, I.

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, P. Targowski, and I. Gorczyńska, Opt. Appl. 32, 569 (2002).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 359–385.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

A. M. Rollins andJ. A. Izatt, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 99–125.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaluzny, J.

J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, P. Targowski, and I. Gorczyńska, Opt. Appl. 32, 569 (2002).

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

A. M. Rollins andJ. A. Izatt, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 99–125.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targowski, P.

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, P. Targowski, and I. Gorczyńska, Opt. Appl. 32, 569 (2002).

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, P. Targowski, and I. Gorczyńska, Opt. Appl. 32, 569 (2002).

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Appl.

J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, P. Targowski, and I. Gorczyńska, Opt. Appl. 32, 569 (2002).

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. M. Rollins andJ. A. Izatt, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 99–125.

C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 359–385.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z 136.1 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1993).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical scheme of the Fourier domain SOCT device. SLD, superluminescent diode; BC, collimator; Chp, optical chopper; RM, reference mirror; BS, 50/50 nonpolarizing beam splitter cube; OL, objective lens; L1, L2, lenses; TS, transversal scanner; BE, beam expander; DG, diffraction grating; CL, camera objective; CCD, camera; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Set of real-time SOCT cross-sectional images of the peripheral part of the human optic disk in vivo. Pulsating blood vessels are indicated by the arrow in the first frame. The frame rate is 6 frames/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Static SOCT cross-sectional image (512×512 pixels) of the peripheral part of the human optic disk in vivo.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Set of real-time SOCT cross-sectional images of the region of the human pupil in vivo. A light was turned on and off at moments indicated by icons. The exposure time was 16 ms per frame (512×128 pixels). The frame rate is 6 frames/s.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Gtotω=Grrω+nGnnω+nmGnmωcosωτnm+nGnrωcosωτnr,
FT-1Gtotω=Γrrτ+nΓnnτ+nmΓτ±τnm+nΓτ±τnr,
Γnmτ-τnm=132πRnRm-+Sω×expiωτ-τnmdω,Γnrτ-τnr=132πRnRr-+Sω×expiωτ-τnrdω.

Metrics