Abstract

For what is believed to be the first time, a three-dimensional tungsten photonic crystal is demonstrated to emit light effectively at wavelength λ=1.5 µm. At a bias of V=7 V, the thermal emission exhibits a full width at half-maximum of Δλ=0.85 µm. Within this narrow band, the emitted optical power is 4.5 W and the electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 22% per emitting surface. This unique emission is made possible by a large, absolute bandgap in the infrared λ and flat photonic dispersion near the band edges and in a narrow absorption band.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Z. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I. El-Kady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

N. A. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. E 64, 56604 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. M. Cornelius and J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming and S. Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 24, 49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soulokous, and K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. John and T. Quang, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Long Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, Jr., R. W.

Bastard, G.

G. Bastard, Wave Mechanics Applied to Semiconductor Heterostructures (Halsted, New York, 1988).

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bhat, N. A. R.

N. A. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. E 64, 56604 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

E. L. Dereniak and G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996), Chap. 2, pp. 56–68.

Bur, J.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. K.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. K.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cornelius, C. M.

C. M. Cornelius and J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E. L.

E. L. Dereniak and G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996), Chap. 2, pp. 56–68.

Dowling, J. P.

C. M. Cornelius and J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, N. K.

G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Long Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

El-Kady, I.

Z. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I. El-Kady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, T. Y.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. G.

Z. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I. El-Kady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming and S. Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 24, 49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, A.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hetherington, D. L.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

Z. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soulokous, and K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John and T. Quang, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtz, S. R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

Z. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming and S. Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 24, 49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I. El-Kady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Merzbacher, E.

E. Merzbacher, Quantum Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1970), Chap. 18, Sect. 8.

Nabors, C. D.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ochoa, J.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soulokous, and K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Quang, T.

S. John and T. Quang, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, A.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soulokous, and K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

N. A. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. E 64, 56604 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. K.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soulokous, C. M.

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soulokous, and K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soulokous, and K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. W.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soulokous, and K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Zubrzycki, W.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I. El-Kady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soulokous, and K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, Nature 394, 252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. M. Cornelius and J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. John and T. Quang, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

N. A. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. E 64, 56604 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (1)

E. L. Dereniak and G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996), Chap. 2, pp. 56–68.

Other (3)

E. Merzbacher, Quantum Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1970), Chap. 18, Sect. 8.

G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Long Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Bastard, Wave Mechanics Applied to Semiconductor Heterostructures (Halsted, New York, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope image of a 3D tungsten photonic crystal. Within each layer, the one-dimensional rod width is 0.5 µm and the rod-to-rod spacing is 1.5 µm. The sample is a freely standing thin film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured reflectance (black) and transmission (blue) spectra for a 3D tungsten photonic crystal sample. The photonic bandgap is at λ>3 µm. There is a small transmittance peak at λ2.5 µm and a high transmittance peak at λ1.75 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Computed reflectance (Reflect., black), transmission (trans., blue), and absorption (red) spectra for a 3D tungsten photonic-crystal sample. The computed positions of the photonic bandgap and band edge agree with the measured ones. The absorptance is suppressed in the bandgap regime (λ>3 µm) and exhibits a fine doublet peak at λ12.5 µm and a narrow absorption band at λ11.51.9 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photonic-crystal emission spectra taken at (a) low (V=0.250.75 V) and (b) intermediate (V=13 V) bias. At low bias, the emission spectrum consists of a broad emission peak (λ36 µm) and two sharp emission peaks at λ12.5 µm and λ21.9 µm. At intermediate bias, the λ2 peak dominates the emission and also shifts slightly to λ21.75 µm. The photograph in the inset of (b) shows a slight visible emission at the tail of the emission peak. It is evident that emission across the entire sample is uniform.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photonic-crystal emission spectra taken at high biases, V=5 V (black), V=6 V (blue), and V=7 V (red). The emission wavelength shifts from λ1.7 µm at V=5 V to λ1.5 µm at V=7 V, corresponding to wavelength scanning of a narrow absorption band. At V=7 V, the emission has a FWHM of Δλ10.85 µm and an emission power of 4.5 W within the narrow band.

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