Abstract

We demonstrate enhanced performance of a single-ended spontaneous-Brillouin-intensity-based distributed-temperature sensor with a sensing length of 50 km and a spatial resolution of 15 m by use of Raman amplification of the probe pulse within the sensing fiber. The Raman amplification was achieved with a copropagating pump pulse at 1450 nm. The standard deviation error of the temperature resolution was 1 °C at the front end and increased to less than 13 °C at 50 km with Raman pulse amplification.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. C. Wait and A. H. Hartog, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 508 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Garus, T. Gogolla, K. Krebber, and F. Schliep, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 654 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Ogawa, T. Kato, and M. Kamikatano, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 234 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 382 (1993).
  6. S. M. Maughan, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 834 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. P. Lees, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1080 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, Opt. Lett. 23, 349 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. T. Cho and T. P. Newson, in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, 2002 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 305–308.
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. C. Wait and A. H. Hartog, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 508 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Maughan, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 834 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

O. Ogawa, T. Kato, and M. Kamikatano, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, Opt. Lett. 23, 349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. P. Lees, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Garus, T. Gogolla, K. Krebber, and F. Schliep, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 382 (1993).

Cho, Y. T.

Y. T. Cho and T. P. Newson, in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, 2002 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 305–308.
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, S.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 382 (1993).

Garus, D.

D. Garus, T. Gogolla, K. Krebber, and F. Schliep, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gogolla, T.

D. Garus, T. Gogolla, K. Krebber, and F. Schliep, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hartog, A. H.

P. C. Wait and A. H. Hartog, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 508 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 382 (1993).

Izumita, H.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 382 (1993).

Kamikatano, M.

O. Ogawa, T. Kato, and M. Kamikatano, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

O. Ogawa, T. Kato, and M. Kamikatano, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kee, H. H.

S. M. Maughan, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 834 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, Opt. Lett. 23, 349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koyamada, Y.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 382 (1993).

Krebber, K.

D. Garus, T. Gogolla, K. Krebber, and F. Schliep, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurashima, T.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 382 (1993).

Lees, G. P.

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, Opt. Lett. 23, 349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maughan, S. M.

S. M. Maughan, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 834 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

S. M. Maughan, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 834 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, Opt. Lett. 23, 349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Cho and T. P. Newson, in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, 2002 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 305–308.
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, O.

O. Ogawa, T. Kato, and M. Kamikatano, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schliep, F.

D. Garus, T. Gogolla, K. Krebber, and F. Schliep, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wait, P. C.

P. C. Wait and A. H. Hartog, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 508 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. P. Lees, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Wait and A. H. Hartog, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 508 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. E (1)

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 382 (1993).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

O. Ogawa, T. Kato, and M. Kamikatano, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. Garus, T. Gogolla, K. Krebber, and F. Schliep, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. M. Maughan, H. H. Kee, and T. P. Newson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 834 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

Y. T. Cho and T. P. Newson, in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, 2002 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 305–308.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration. DFB, distributed feedback; EDFA 1, EDFA 2, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers; AOM 1–AOM 3, acousto-optic modulators; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Brillouin-backscattered trace (a) with and (b) without Raman pulse amplification.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enlarged Brillouin trace at 50 km (a) with and (b) without Raman pulse amplification.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Derived temperature profile at the far end of the sensing fiber with Raman gain. Inset, expanded view of the Brillouin signal indicating spatial resolution of 15 m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Standard deviation of temperature measured at every 5 km. STDEV, standard deviation.

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