Abstract

A new femtosecond pump–probe spectroscopy technique is demonstrated that permits the high-speed, parallel acquisition of pump–probe measurements at multiple wavelengths. This is made possible by use of a novel, two-dimensional smart pixel detector array that performs amplitude demodulation in real time on each pixel. This detector array can not only achieve sensitivities comparable with lock-in amplification but also simultaneously performs demodulation of probe transmission signals at multiple wavelengths, thus permitting rapid time- and wavelength-resolved femtosecond pump–probe spectroscopy. Measurements on a thin sample of bulk GaAs are performed across 58 simultaneous wavelengths. Differential probe transmission changes as small as 2×10-4 can be measured over a 5-ps delay scan in only 3 min. This technology can be applied to a wide range of pump–probe measurements in condensed matter, chemistry, and biology.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheurer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 411 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. G. P. Wakeham and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 505 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1988 (1)

W.-Z. Lin, R. W. Schoenlein, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 267 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelow, G.

Boiko, A.

Bourquin, S.

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 26, 512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cho, S. H.

Downer, M. C.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ell, R.

Fork, R. L.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gallmann, L.

Gossard, A. C.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Hirlimann, C.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Knox, W. H.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, M. J.

Lin, W.-Z.

W.-Z. Lin, R. W. Schoenlein, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 267 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Matuschek, N.

Miller, D. A. B.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Morier-Genoud, F.

Nelson, K. A.

Salathé, R. P.

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 26, 512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, V.

Scheurer, V.

Schoenlein, R. W.

W.-Z. Lin, R. W. Schoenlein, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 267 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, P.

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 26, 512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

Sutter, D. H.

Tschudi, T.

Wakeham, G. P.

Wiegmann, W.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W.-Z. Lin, R. W. Schoenlein, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 267 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. BS, beam splitter; M’s, mirrors; DL, delay line; HW, half-wave plate; CH, chopper; PM, parabolic mirror; AS, aperture stop; L1, L2, lenses; P, polarizer; DG, diffraction grating; DA, smart pixel detector array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the two-dimensional image sensor and detailed view of individual pixels and address decoders (located in the lower left corner). PD, photodiode; EC, electrical circuitry; RD, row decoder; CD, column decoder.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrally resolved femtosecond pump–probe measurements of a thin sample of bulk GaAs. The data were acquired simultaneously by the smart pixel detector array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Femtosecond pump–probe measurements of bulk GaAs at selected probe wavelengths as a function of time delay and extracted from a three-dimensional data set acquired from the smart pixel detector array. The traces are separated for clarity.

Equations (1)

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tacq=NpNaNtPr=LVDL,

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