Abstract

Volume-growth solgel glass acting as self-developing material is used for three-dimensional (3D) fabrication of micro-optical elements. The solgel glass is exposed to a focused laser beam λ=325 nm, and surface corrugation is created as a result of surface expansion in the exposed area. The profile depth is related to the laser beam intensity, which is controlled by an acousto-optic modulator, which makes it possible to fabricate 3D structures in the material. Preliminary results show that the controllable volume-growth effect will be of considerable use for production of 3D micro-optical elements with excellent surface smoothness in solgel materials.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and N. Tohge, Appl. Opt. 39, 489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, Opt. Commun. 185, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Commun. 162, 215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Neumann, K. S. Wieking, and D. Kip, Appl. Opt. 38, 5418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, Opt. Commun. 143, 199 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. S. Rajanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Commun. 162, 215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, S.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, D.

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, Thin Solid Films 384, 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y. C.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, Opt. Commun. 185, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

Coudray, P.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, Opt. Commun. 143, 199 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Descour, M. R.

Etienne, P.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, Opt. Commun. 143, 199 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Farada, M. A.

Hiltunen, J. A.

Holme, N. C. R.

P. S. Rajanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Commun. 162, 215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

P. S. Rajanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. J.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, Opt. Commun. 185, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kärkkäinen, A. H. O.

Keränen, M.

Kim, D. Y.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Kip, D.

Kololuoma, T.

Kumar, J.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, Opt. Commun. 185, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Memdes, S. B.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Commun. 162, 215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, Y.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, Opt. Commun. 143, 199 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

S. I. Najafi, T. Touam, R. Sara, M. P. Andrews, and M. A. Farada, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, Opt. Commun. 143, 199 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, J.

Ngo, N. Q.

Nishii, J.

Pelissier, S.

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, Thin Solid Films 384, 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Commun. 162, 215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Porque, J.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, Opt. Commun. 143, 199 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rajanujam, P. S.

P. S. Rajanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rantala, J. T.

Sara, R.

Tohge, N.

Touam, T.

Tripathy, S.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wieking, K. S.

Williams, J. M.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, X.-C.

Zhou, Y.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, Opt. Commun. 185, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. S. Rajanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Commun. 162, 215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, Opt. Commun. 185, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, Opt. Commun. 143, 199 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Thin Solid Films (1)

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, Thin Solid Films 384, 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Surface-relief thickness versus line positions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface-relief thickness versus postbake time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface-relief thickness as a function of laser beam intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sawtooth gratings fabricated with a step size of (a) 7 µm, (b) 5 µm and (c) 3 µm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Calculated Difference Efficiencies of the Gratings as Shown in Fig. 4(c)

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