Abstract

We propose a secure display technique based on visual cryptography. The proposed technique ensures the security of visual information. The display employs a decoding mask based on visual cryptography. Without the decoding mask, the displayed information cannot be viewed. The viewing zone is limited by the decoding mask so that only one person can view the information. We have developed a set of encryption codes to maintain the designed viewing zone and have demonstrated a display that provides a limited viewing zone.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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2002 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (4)

Z. Zalevsky, D. Mendlovic, U. Levy, and G. Shabtay, Opt. Commun. 180, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Unnikrishnan, M. Pohit, and K. Singh, Opt. Commun. 185, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, Opt. Lett. 25, 28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, Opt. Lett. 25, 566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, Opt. Eng. 35, 2464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

A. Shamir, Commun. ACM 22, 612 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chatwin, C.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, Opt. Eng. 35, 2464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Droste, S.

S. Droste, in Advances in Cryptography—CRYPT'96, Vol. 1109 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 401–415.

Glückstad, J.

Hayasaki, Y.

Horner, J. L.

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Kouno, M.

Kuhn, M. G.

M. G. Kuhn, in 2002 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, California, 2002), pp. 3–18, http://computer.org/proceedings/sp/1543/1543toc.htm.
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

Z. Zalevsky, D. Mendlovic, U. Levy, and G. Shabtay, Opt. Commun. 180, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matoba, O.

Mendlovic, D.

Z. Zalevsky, D. Mendlovic, U. Levy, and G. Shabtay, Opt. Commun. 180, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mogensen, P. C.

Muguruma, S.

Nagai, Y.

Naor, M.

M. Naor and A. Shamir, in Advances in Cryptography—EUROCRYPT'94, Vol. 950 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 1–12.

Nishida, N.

Nomura, T.

Pohit, M.

G. Unnikrishnan, M. Pohit, and K. Singh, Opt. Commun. 185, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

Shabtay, G.

Z. Zalevsky, D. Mendlovic, U. Levy, and G. Shabtay, Opt. Commun. 180, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shamir, A.

A. Shamir, Commun. ACM 22, 612 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Naor and A. Shamir, in Advances in Cryptography—EUROCRYPT'94, Vol. 950 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 1–12.

Shimizu, Y.

Singh, K.

G. Unnikrishnan, M. Pohit, and K. Singh, Opt. Commun. 185, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Unnikrishnan, G.

G. Unnikrishnan, M. Pohit, and K. Singh, Opt. Commun. 185, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, Opt. Eng. 35, 2464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. A.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, Opt. Eng. 35, 2464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

Zalevsky, Z.

Z. Zalevsky, D. Mendlovic, U. Levy, and G. Shabtay, Opt. Commun. 180, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Commun. ACM (1)

A. Shamir, Commun. ACM 22, 612 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lecture Notes in Computer Science (1)

M. Naor and A. Shamir, in Advances in Cryptography—EUROCRYPT'94, Vol. 950 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 1–12.

Lecture Notes in Computer Science (1)

S. Droste, in Advances in Cryptography—CRYPT'96, Vol. 1109 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 401–415.

Opt. Commun. (2)

Z. Zalevsky, D. Mendlovic, U. Levy, and G. Shabtay, Opt. Commun. 180, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Unnikrishnan, M. Pohit, and K. Singh, Opt. Commun. 185, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, Opt. Eng. 35, 2464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

M. G. Kuhn, in 2002 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, California, 2002), pp. 3–18, http://computer.org/proceedings/sp/1543/1543toc.htm.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram illustrating secure information display by use of a decoding mask based on visual cryptography to limit the viewing zone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Set of encryption codes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Developed secure information display.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of (a) secret image data to be encrypted, (b) the encrypted image, (c) pattern of the decoding mask.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between the viewing position and the visual quality. Insets are experimental results of viewed images (a) within the viewing zone, (b) beside the viewing zone, and (c) outside the viewing zone.

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