A major obstacle in the race to develop two-photon fluorescence endoscopy is the use of complicated bulk optics to transmit an ultrashort-pulsed laser beam and return the emitted fluorescence signal. We describe an all-fiber two-photon fluorescence microendoscope based on a single-mode optical fiber coupler, a microprism, and a gradient-index rod lens. It is found that the new endoscope exhibits an axial resolution of and is capable of imaging transverse cross sections of internal cylindrical structures as small as approximately 3.0 mm in diameter. This device demonstrates the potential for developing a real-time diagnostic tool for biomedical research without the need for surgical biopsy and may find applications in photodynamic therapy, microsurgery, and early cancer detection.
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