Abstract

We report, for the first time to our knowledge, experimental demonstration of wave-front analysis via the Hartmann technique in the extreme ultraviolet range. The reference wave front needed to calibrate the sensor was generated by spatially filtering a focused undulator beam with 1.7- and 0.6µm-diameter pinholes. To fully characterize the sensor, accuracy and sensitivity measurements were performed. The incident beam’s wavelength was varied from 7 to 25 nm. Measurements of accuracy better than λEUV/120 (0.11 nm) were obtained at λEUV=13.4 nm. The aberrations introduced by an additional thin mirror, as well as wave front of the spatially unfiltered incident beam, were also measured.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, and J. Boker, Appl. Opt. 38, 7252 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, and J. Bokor, Opt. Lett. 21, 1526 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. A. Goldberg, Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, 1997).
  4. E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. H. Southwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998 (1980).
  6. D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation—Principles and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Imagine Optics, patent PCT/FR02/02495 (July 2002).

1999 (2)

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, and J. Boker, Appl. Opt. 38, 7252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1980 (1)

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, and J. Boker, Appl. Opt. 38, 7252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation—Principles and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beguiristain, R.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boker, J.

Bokor, J.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, and J. Bokor, Opt. Lett. 21, 1526 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, and J. Boker, Appl. Opt. 38, 7252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P. E.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K. A.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, and J. Boker, Appl. Opt. 38, 7252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, and J. Bokor, Opt. Lett. 21, 1526 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, 1997).

Gullikson, E. M.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, and J. Boker, Appl. Opt. 38, 7252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MacDowell, A. A.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Medecki, H.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Medecki, K.

Naulleau, P. P.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, and J. Boker, Appl. Opt. 38, 7252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Tejnil, E.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, and J. Bokor, Opt. Lett. 21, 1526 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, J. H.

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Attwood, P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, IEEE Quantum Electron. 35, 709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, and J. Bokor, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

K. A. Goldberg, Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, 1997).

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation—Principles and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Imagine Optics, patent PCT/FR02/02495 (July 2002).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ALS beamline 12.0 with the spatial filtering and the Hartmann wave-front sensor. Insets, images of the beam diffracted by the pinhole, the hole array pattern, and the Hartmann pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized beam intensity profiles obtained with (a) the 1.7µm pinhole and (b) the 0.6µm pinhole. With the 1.7- and 0.6µm pinholes, respectively, (c), (d), wave-front focus terms, (e), (f), residual absolute wave fronts, and (g), (h), residual relative wave fronts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength dependence of the residual absolute and relative wave-front measurements in terms of λEUV=13.4 nm over the same analysis pupil with the 1.7µm pinhole. The full (empty) squares and circles are the absolute and relative rms (PV) wave-front measurements, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Wave front reflected by a flat Mo/Si multilayer-coated mirror placed in front of the spatially filtered incident beam. (b) ALS beamline 12.0 wave-front measurement without spatial filtering at 13.4 nm.

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