Abstract

We demonstrate highly efficient and spectrally flat broadband coupling in photonic crystal directional couplers. The result is obtained by use of a novel design with smaller holes between coparallel photonic crystal waveguides for efficient channel-to-channel coupling. The system studied is based on a planar hexagonal photonic crystal lattice of holes made in silicon-on-insulator material. Results from three-dimensional finite-difference time domain modeling are shown to closely match results measured on fabricated samples.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 47 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Tokushima and H. Yamada, Electron. Lett. 37, 1454 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).
  4. T. Søndergaard, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1619 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, Comput. Phys. Commun. 128, 590 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Lavrinenko, Center for Communications, Optics and Materials, Technical University of Denmark, Building 345V, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (personal communication, 2002).
  7. P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).
  8. M. Thorhauge, P. Borel, L. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, and H. Chong, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), pp. 494–495.

2002

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Tokushima and H. Yamada, Electron. Lett. 37, 1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, Comput. Phys. Commun. 128, 590 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arentoft, J.

Borel, P.

M. Thorhauge, P. Borel, L. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, and H. Chong, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), pp. 494–495.

Borel, P. I.

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Boscolo, S.

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Chong, H.

M. Thorhauge, P. Borel, L. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, and H. Chong, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), pp. 494–495.

Chong, H. M. H.

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Frandsen, L.

M. Thorhauge, P. Borel, L. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, and H. Chong, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), pp. 494–495.

Frandsen, L. H.

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Kampanis, M.

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Kristensen, M.

T. Søndergaard, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

M. Thorhauge, P. Borel, L. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, and H. Chong, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), pp. 494–495.

Lavrinenko, A.

M. Thorhauge, P. Borel, L. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, and H. Chong, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), pp. 494–495.

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

A. Lavrinenko, Center for Communications, Optics and Materials, Technical University of Denmark, Building 345V, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (personal communication, 2002).

Midrio, M.

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, Comput. Phys. Commun. 128, 590 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Someda, C. G.

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, T.

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).

Thorhauge, M.

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

M. Thorhauge, P. Borel, L. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, and H. Chong, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), pp. 494–495.

Tokushima, M.

M. Tokushima and H. Yamada, Electron. Lett. 37, 1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ward, A. J.

A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, Comput. Phys. Commun. 128, 590 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

M. Tokushima and H. Yamada, Electron. Lett. 37, 1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, Y.

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Comput. Phys. Commun.

A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, Comput. Phys. Commun. 128, 590 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Tokushima and H. Yamada, Electron. Lett. 37, 1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

M. Thorhauge, P. Borel, L. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, and H. Chong, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), pp. 494–495.

Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, and H. M. H. Chong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), Postconference Digest, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Other

A. Lavrinenko, Center for Communications, Optics and Materials, Technical University of Denmark, Building 345V, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (personal communication, 2002).

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of the fabricated coupler with a straight-coupled channel (type I). The fabricated coupler has a larger separation between the two output channels compared with the modeled coupler. (b) Modeled coupler with a straight-direct channel (type II). The regular PC holes (black) have a radius of 0.365Λ, and the smaller coupling holes (gray) have a radius of 0.23Λ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coupled transmission through a 27Λ-long type I coupler. For comparison, the bandgap for TE polarization for a single-channel PCW is 1150 to 1600 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Direct transmission through a 27Λ-long type II coupler.

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