Abstract

The spectrum of xenon excited in a low-inductance vacuum spark was photographed at high resolution in the region of 9.5–15.5 nm. The observed transitions were identified as belonging to ions from Xe8+ to Xe13+. In the region of importance for extreme-ultraviolet lithography around 13.4 nm, the strongest lines were identified as 4d84d75p transitions in Xe10+. The identifications were made by use of energy parameters extrapolated along the isoelectronic sequence.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1325 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Kubiak, L. Bernardez, and K. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 3331, 81 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Klosner and W. T. Silfvast, Opt. Lett. 23, 1609 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Klosner and W. T. Silfvast, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1279 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. See, for example, J. Reader, N. Acquista, and V. Kaufman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 538 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Identification of commercial products is given for adequate specification of the experimental procedure and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute for Standards and Technology.
  8. R. L. Kelly, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16, Suppl. 1 (1987).
  9. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, Phys. Scr. 26, 419 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, and J. L. Tech, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 691 (1983).
  11. S. S. Churilov and Y. N. Joshi, Phys. Scr. 65, 40 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (U. California Press, Berkeley, 1981), and Cowan computer code.
  13. V. I. Azarov, Y. N. Joshi, S. S. Churilov, and A. N. Ryabtsev, Phys. Scr. 50, 642 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. R. Gayasov, S. S. Churilov, Y. N. Joshi, A. N. Ryabtsev, and V. I. Azarov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1013 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Radke, C. Biedermann, J. L. Schwab, P. Mandelbaum, and R. Doron, Phys. Rev. A 64, 012720 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. O’Sullivan and P. K. Carroll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 227 (1981).
  17. R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, and R. Spitzer, Appl. Opt. 32, 6896 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. S. Churilov and Y. N. Joshi, Phys. Scr. 65, 40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Radke, C. Biedermann, J. L. Schwab, P. Mandelbaum, and R. Doron, Phys. Rev. A 64, 012720 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

M. A. Klosner and W. T. Silfvast, Opt. Lett. 23, 1609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Kubiak, L. Bernardez, and K. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 3331, 81 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. R. Gayasov, S. S. Churilov, Y. N. Joshi, A. N. Ryabtsev, and V. I. Azarov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. I. Azarov, Y. N. Joshi, S. S. Churilov, and A. N. Ryabtsev, Phys. Scr. 50, 642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, and R. Spitzer, Appl. Opt. 32, 6896 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1325 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. L. Kelly, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16, Suppl. 1 (1987).

1983 (1)

V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, and J. L. Tech, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 691 (1983).

1982 (1)

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, Phys. Scr. 26, 419 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (U. California Press, Berkeley, 1981), and Cowan computer code.

G. O’Sullivan and P. K. Carroll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 227 (1981).

1967 (1)

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Acquista, N.

Azarov, V. I.

R. R. Gayasov, S. S. Churilov, Y. N. Joshi, A. N. Ryabtsev, and V. I. Azarov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Azarov, Y. N. Joshi, S. S. Churilov, and A. N. Ryabtsev, Phys. Scr. 50, 642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bernardez, L.

G. Kubiak, L. Bernardez, and K. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 3331, 81 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biedermann, C.

R. Radke, C. Biedermann, J. L. Schwab, P. Mandelbaum, and R. Doron, Phys. Rev. A 64, 012720 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, P. K.

Ceglio, N. M.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1325 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Churilov, S. S.

S. S. Churilov and Y. N. Joshi, Phys. Scr. 65, 40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gayasov, S. S. Churilov, Y. N. Joshi, A. N. Ryabtsev, and V. I. Azarov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Azarov, Y. N. Joshi, S. S. Churilov, and A. N. Ryabtsev, Phys. Scr. 50, 642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, R. D.

R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (U. California Press, Berkeley, 1981), and Cowan computer code.

Doron, R.

R. Radke, C. Biedermann, J. L. Schwab, P. Mandelbaum, and R. Doron, Phys. Rev. A 64, 012720 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, U.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gaines, D. P.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1325 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gayasov, R. R.

R. R. Gayasov, S. S. Churilov, Y. N. Joshi, A. N. Ryabtsev, and V. I. Azarov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A. M.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1325 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, Y. N.

S. S. Churilov and Y. N. Joshi, Phys. Scr. 65, 40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gayasov, S. S. Churilov, Y. N. Joshi, A. N. Ryabtsev, and V. I. Azarov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Azarov, Y. N. Joshi, S. S. Churilov, and A. N. Ryabtsev, Phys. Scr. 50, 642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kauffman, R. L.

R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, and R. Spitzer, Appl. Opt. 32, 6896 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, V.

See, for example, J. Reader, N. Acquista, and V. Kaufman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, and J. L. Tech, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 691 (1983).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, Phys. Scr. 26, 419 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16, Suppl. 1 (1987).

Klosner, M. A.

Krenz, K.

G. Kubiak, L. Bernardez, and K. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 3331, 81 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G.

G. Kubiak, L. Bernardez, and K. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 3331, 81 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mandelbaum, P.

R. Radke, C. Biedermann, J. L. Schwab, P. Mandelbaum, and R. Doron, Phys. Rev. A 64, 012720 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Sullivan, G.

Phillion, D. W.

R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, and R. Spitzer, Appl. Opt. 32, 6896 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Radke, R.

R. Radke, C. Biedermann, J. L. Schwab, P. Mandelbaum, and R. Doron, Phys. Rev. A 64, 012720 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reader, J.

Rosen, R. S.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1325 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ryabtsev, A. N.

R. R. Gayasov, S. S. Churilov, Y. N. Joshi, A. N. Ryabtsev, and V. I. Azarov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Azarov, Y. N. Joshi, S. S. Churilov, and A. N. Ryabtsev, Phys. Scr. 50, 642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwab, J. L.

R. Radke, C. Biedermann, J. L. Schwab, P. Mandelbaum, and R. Doron, Phys. Rev. A 64, 012720 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T.

Spitzer, R.

R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, and R. Spitzer, Appl. Opt. 32, 6896 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1325 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sugar, J.

V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, and J. L. Tech, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 691 (1983).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, Phys. Scr. 26, 419 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Swartz, M.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Tech, J. L.

V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, and J. L. Tech, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 691 (1983).

Vernon, S. P.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1325 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, and R. Spitzer, Appl. Opt. 32, 6896 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, and J. L. Tech, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 691 (1983).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

R. R. Gayasov, S. S. Churilov, Y. N. Joshi, A. N. Ryabtsev, and V. I. Azarov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

R. L. Kelly, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16, Suppl. 1 (1987).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1325 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Radke, C. Biedermann, J. L. Schwab, P. Mandelbaum, and R. Doron, Phys. Rev. A 64, 012720 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (3)

V. I. Azarov, Y. N. Joshi, S. S. Churilov, and A. N. Ryabtsev, Phys. Scr. 50, 642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, Phys. Scr. 26, 419 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Churilov and Y. N. Joshi, Phys. Scr. 65, 40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Kubiak, L. Bernardez, and K. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 3331, 81 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (U. California Press, Berkeley, 1981), and Cowan computer code.

Identification of commercial products is given for adequate specification of the experimental procedure and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute for Standards and Technology.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microdensitometer tracing of the spectrum of xenon excited in a low-inductance vacuum spark in the region around 13.4 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Prominent Lines of Xe10+ in the 13.0–14.0-nm Region

Metrics