Abstract

Interferometry is a technique for reconstructing the profiles of phase objects. We present a novel interferometric setup for generating interferograms with doubled phase profile and enhanced contrast compared with the standard interferogram. The proposed system consists of a two-beam interferometer in which the reference and test waves are circularly polarized orthogonally to each other. They are superposed upon a bacteriorhodopsin film, creating a polarization grating that is distorted by the phase of the test object. This polarization pattern is read by a polarized He–Ne beam. We show analytically and experimentally that, when the zero diffraction order is removed, an interferogram with doubled phase profile and enhanced contrast is obtained.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

José A. Ferrari, Eugenio Garbusi, and Erna M. Frins, "Enhancing the phase profile and contrast of an interferogram by polarization recording in bacteriorhodopsin: erratum," Opt. Lett. 29, 213-213 (2004)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-29-2-213

References

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  1. J. E. Greivenkamp and J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 501–598.
  2. M. Kujawinska, in Interferogram Analysis, D. Robinson and G. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, London, 1993), Chap. 5.
  3. R. A. Smithe and R. Moore, Opt. Eng. 23, 361 (1984).
  4. J. A. Ferrari and E. M. Frins, Appl. Opt. 41, 5313 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, and E. M. Frins, Opt. Commun. 209, 245 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Ferrari, E. M. Frins, C. D. Perciante, and A. Dubra, Opt. Lett. 7, 1272 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, and N. Tomova, Appl. Opt. 23, 4309 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. 100, 1755 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Okada-Shudo, J.-M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. 41, 2803 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Gori, Opt. Lett. 24, 584 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. A. Ferrari and E. M. Frins, Appl. Opt. 41, 5313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, and E. M. Frins, Opt. Commun. 209, 245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada-Shudo, J.-M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. 100, 1755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. A. Ferrari, E. M. Frins, C. D. Perciante, and A. Dubra, Opt. Lett. 7, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Gori, Opt. Lett. 24, 584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Kujawinska, in Interferogram Analysis, D. Robinson and G. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, London, 1993), Chap. 5.

1992 (1)

J. E. Greivenkamp and J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 501–598.

1984 (2)

Bruning, J. H.

J. E. Greivenkamp and J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 501–598.

Dubra, A.

J. A. Ferrari, E. M. Frins, C. D. Perciante, and A. Dubra, Opt. Lett. 7, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, J. A.

J. A. Ferrari and E. M. Frins, Appl. Opt. 41, 5313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, and E. M. Frins, Opt. Commun. 209, 245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ferrari, E. M. Frins, C. D. Perciante, and A. Dubra, Opt. Lett. 7, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frins, E. M.

J. A. Ferrari and E. M. Frins, Appl. Opt. 41, 5313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, and E. M. Frins, Opt. Commun. 209, 245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ferrari, E. M. Frins, C. D. Perciante, and A. Dubra, Opt. Lett. 7, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garbusi, E.

J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, and E. M. Frins, Opt. Commun. 209, 245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gori, F.

Greivenkamp, J. E.

J. E. Greivenkamp and J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 501–598.

Hampp, N.

N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. 100, 1755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan, J.-M.

Y. Okada-Shudo, J.-M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kujawinska, M.

M. Kujawinska, in Interferogram Analysis, D. Robinson and G. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, London, 1993), Chap. 5.

Moore, R.

R. A. Smithe and R. Moore, Opt. Eng. 23, 361 (1984).

Nikolova, L.

Okada-Shudo, Y.

Y. Okada-Shudo, J.-M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perciante, C. D.

J. A. Ferrari, E. M. Frins, C. D. Perciante, and A. Dubra, Opt. Lett. 7, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

Y. Okada-Shudo, J.-M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smithe, R. A.

R. A. Smithe and R. Moore, Opt. Eng. 23, 361 (1984).

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chem. Rev. (1)

N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. 100, 1755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, and E. M. Frins, Opt. Commun. 209, 245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

Y. Okada-Shudo, J.-M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Smithe and R. Moore, Opt. Eng. 23, 361 (1984).

Opt. Lett. (2)

F. Gori, Opt. Lett. 24, 584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ferrari, E. M. Frins, C. D. Perciante, and A. Dubra, Opt. Lett. 7, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. E. Greivenkamp and J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 501–598.

M. Kujawinska, in Interferogram Analysis, D. Robinson and G. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, London, 1993), Chap. 5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: SF, spatial filter and beam expander; W, Wollaston prism; PO, test phase object; M, mirror; BS, beam splitter; QW, λ/4-plate with its fast axis at 45° with respect to the x axis; L1, imaging lens; L2, lens to expand the He–Ne beam; L3, L4, Fourier lenses; BR, bacteriorhodopsin film; P, polarizer with its transmission direction orthogonal to the He–Ne polarization; C1, focal plane of L3; fs, focal lengths of lens L4; C2, output x,y plane, where camera C is placed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferograms of butane gas flowing through a tube. Images obtained at plane C2. (a) Standard interferogram obtained by blocking the order of diffraction, -1; (b) interferogram obtained by removing the zero diffraction order.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructed phase profiles: (a) from the interferogram shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b) from the interferogram shown in Fig. 2(b).

Equations (10)

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Ix,y=I0x,y1+Vx,ycos2βx+ϕx,y,
ET=E0 expiϕx,y+βx1i,
ER=E0 exp-iβx1-i,
Ex,y=2E0 expiϕx,y/2cosβx+ϕx,y/2-sinβx+ϕx,y/2.
M=cos2βx+ϕx,y/2-sinβx+ϕx,y/2cosβx+ϕx,y/2sinβx+ϕx,y/2cosβx+ϕx,y/2sin2βx+ϕx,y/2·
EH=E101,
EBx,y=E1201+E1 expi2βx+ϕx,y+π/241i+E1 exp-i2βx+ϕx,y+π/241-i.
Ex,y=-E1 cos2βx+ϕx,y210.
Ix,y=E12/81+cos4βx+2ϕx,y.
Ex,y=E2+E1 exp+i2βx+ϕx,y+π/24

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