Abstract

An electric-field-induced second-harmonic-generation signal in a nematic liquid crystal is used to map the electric field in an integrated-circuit-like sample. Since the electric-field-induced second-harmonic-generation signal intensity exhibits a strong dependence on the polarization of the incident laser beam, both the amplitude and the orientation of the electric field vectors can be measured. Combined with scanning second-harmonic-generation microscopy, three-dimensional electric field distribution can be easily visualized with high spatial resolution of the order of 1 µm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Menzel and E. Kudalek, Scanning 5, 103 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 198 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7607 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. de Jong, A. F. Etteger, C. A. van't Hof, P. J. van Hall, and T. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 331–333, 1372 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Scanning 23, 182 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, A. M. Dorozhkin, and N. M. Shtykov, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 98, 1 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. K. Saha and G. K. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 423 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Stolle, T. Dürr, and G. Marowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1583 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. For future applications a point-by-point mapping photomultiplier-tube-based reflection-type scanning SHG microscope could be used. The forward emitted SHG signal would be reflected by the device surface and could be detected with a photomultiplier tube.
  16. T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, Scanning 23, 249 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Scanning 23, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, Scanning 23, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Stolle, T. Dürr, and G. Marowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. de Jong, A. F. Etteger, C. A. van't Hof, P. J. van Hall, and T. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 331–333, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

E. Menzel and E. Kudalek, Scanning 5, 103 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, A. M. Dorozhkin, and N. M. Shtykov, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 98, 1 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. K. Saha and G. K. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 423 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. H.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arakelian, S. M.

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barnik, M. I.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, A. M. Dorozhkin, and N. M. Shtykov, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 98, 1 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, L. M.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, A. M. Dorozhkin, and N. M. Shtykov, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 98, 1 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, P.-C.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, Scanning 23, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.-W.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, Scanning 23, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Scanning 23, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, W.

W. de Jong, A. F. Etteger, C. A. van't Hof, P. J. van Hall, and T. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 331–333, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Scanning 23, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dorozhkin, A. M.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, A. M. Dorozhkin, and N. M. Shtykov, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 98, 1 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Durbin, S. D.

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dürr, T.

R. Stolle, T. Dürr, and G. Marowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Etteger, A. F.

W. de Jong, A. F. Etteger, C. A. van't Hof, P. J. van Hall, and T. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 331–333, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. F.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, I.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, Scanning 23, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, S.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Scanning 23, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kudalek, E.

E. Menzel and E. Kudalek, Scanning 5, 103 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.-L.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, Scanning 23, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linial, M.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-M.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, Scanning 23, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loffler, T.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lowell, J. K.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lupke, G.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

R. Stolle, T. Dürr, and G. Marowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, E.

E. Menzel and E. Kudalek, Scanning 5, 103 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, C.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Scanning 23, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohlhoff, C.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peleg, G.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, T.

W. de Jong, A. F. Etteger, C. A. van't Hof, P. J. van Hall, and T. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 331–333, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodwell, M. J. W.

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saha, S. K.

S. K. Saha and G. K. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 423 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shtykov, N. M.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, A. M. Dorozhkin, and N. M. Shtykov, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 98, 1 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stolle, R.

R. Stolle, T. Dürr, and G. Marowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-K.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Scanning 23, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, Scanning 23, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tai, S. P.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Scanning 23, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, S.-P.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Hall, P. J.

W. de Jong, A. F. Etteger, C. A. van't Hof, P. J. van Hall, and T. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 331–333, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van't Hof, C. A.

W. de Jong, A. F. Etteger, C. A. van't Hof, P. J. van Hall, and T. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 331–333, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K.

S. K. Saha and G. K. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 423 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B. Y.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, T. Loffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Saha and G. K. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 423 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

R. Stolle, T. Dürr, and G. Marowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, A. M. Dorozhkin, and N. M. Shtykov, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 98, 1 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167 (1967).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scanning (3)

E. Menzel and E. Kudalek, Scanning 5, 103 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Scanning 23, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, Scanning 23, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. (1)

W. de Jong, A. F. Etteger, C. A. van't Hof, P. J. van Hall, and T. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 331–333, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

For future applications a point-by-point mapping photomultiplier-tube-based reflection-type scanning SHG microscope could be used. The forward emitted SHG signal would be reflected by the device surface and could be detected with a photomultiplier tube.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Setup of a scanning SHG microscope. (B), (C) Detailed sample structure, light path, and orientation convention. Obj, microscope objective; CF, color filter; MF, mirror flipper; E, gold electrode; G, 10µm groove filled with nonprealigned NLC; CG, microscope cover glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) SHG response versus applied voltage in a log–log scale. The slope of the linear fit is 2.06, indicating its EFISHG nature. (B) SHG response versus excitation light polarization. The maximum occurs when the pump field is parallel to the electric field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Imaged electric field vector distribution in the plane of the electrode within the squared region of Fig. 1(C). (A) Sectioned image measuring the electric field component in the direction of yˆ+xˆ. (B) Sectioned image measuring the electric field component in the direction of yˆ-xˆ. (C), (D) Recovered amplitude and direction of the electric field vector, respectively. Image size: 12×12 µm.

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