Abstract

Electrical poling induces polar ordering of molecules in a grating that has been holographically inscribed on a thin film of polymer with azobenzene side chains. The resulting χ2 grating, seen by second-harmonic-generation (SHG) near-field scanning optical microscopy, can have a periodic structure that is significantly different from the topographical image. The far-field linear and SHG diffraction patterns correlate well with the grating structures. Poling of the thin-film grating, which presumably has photodriven nonuniform material properties within each period, leads to the more complex structure of the χ2 grating.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 27, 1885 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Appl. Phys. B 74, 129 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, K. R. Wilson, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5143 (2002).
  7. P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 72 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. K. Viswanatahan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, S. K. Tripathy, and J. Kumar, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5928 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Macromol. Symp. 137, 5 (1999).
  10. T. M. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

2002

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Appl. Phys. B 74, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, K. R. Wilson, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5143 (2002).

T. M. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

1999

N. K. Viswanatahan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, S. K. Tripathy, and J. Kumar, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Macromol. Symp. 137, 5 (1999).

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 72 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 27, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, S.

N. K. Viswanatahan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, S. K. Tripathy, and J. Kumar, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barberi, R.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buffeteau, T.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Appl. Phys. B 74, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Macromol. Symp. 137, 5 (1999).

Che, Y.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cipparone, G.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Santo, M. P.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Egami, C.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 72 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, H.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geue, T. M.

T. M. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haber, L. H.

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, K. R. Wilson, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5143 (2002).

Hasegawa, M.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Henneberg, O.

T. M. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ikawa, T.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Johnson, J. C.

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, K. R. Wilson, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5143 (2002).

Kawata, Y.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

N. K. Viswanatahan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, S. K. Tripathy, and J. Kumar, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lagugné-Labarthet, F.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Appl. Phys. B 74, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Macromol. Symp. 137, 5 (1999).

Lee, L. F.

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, K. R. Wilson, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5143 (2002).

Lefin, P.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 72 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

N. K. Viswanatahan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, S. K. Tripathy, and J. Kumar, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, G.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuoka, T.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Natansohn, A.

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 27, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A. L.

T. M. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 72 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palto, S. P.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pietsch, U.

T. M. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 27, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P. L.

T. M. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saphiannikova, M. G.

T. M. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, K. R. Wilson, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5143 (2002).

Schaller, R. D.

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, K. R. Wilson, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5143 (2002).

Soulier, L.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sourisseau, C.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Appl. Phys. B 74, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Macromol. Symp. 137, 5 (1999).

Sugihara, O.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toussaere, E.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

N. K. Viswanatahan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, S. K. Tripathy, and J. Kumar, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchimori, M.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viswanatahan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanatahan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, S. K. Tripathy, and J. Kumar, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, O.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. R.

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, K. R. Wilson, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5143 (2002).

Xie, S.

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 27, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, S. G.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Appl. Phys. B 74, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, M. P. De Santo, G. Cipparone, A. Mazzulla, and R. Barberi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, K. R. Wilson, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5143 (2002).

J. Phys. Chem.

T. Ikawa, T. Mitsuoka, M. Hasegawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 9055 (2000).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

N. K. Viswanatahan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, S. K. Tripathy, and J. Kumar, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Symp.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, Macromol. Symp. 137, 5 (1999).

Macromolecules

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 27, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

T. M. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 72 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Poling schematic of the thin-film grating. Note that the vertical and horizontal length scales are different. (b) SHG diffraction setup. (c) NSOM setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Far-field linear diffraction pattern for the 400-nm grating observed with a horizontally polarized He–Ne laser beam at λ=632.8 nm. (b) Far-field SHG diffraction patterns for (top) 400-nm and (bottom) 100-nm gratings observed by an input Nd:YAG laser at λ=1064 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(b), (d) SHG NSOM images for p(DR1M) thin-film gratings with grating amplitudes of 100 and 400 nm, respectively, obtained with 1.28µm femtosecond input pulses. The corresponding topographical images are shown in (a) and (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Periodic variations of SHG NSOM in scans across the grating lines with PinPout and SinPout polarization combinations for the 400-nm grating. Experimental data points (open circles) after correction by Fresnel coefficients are approximated by the solid curves. FTs of the solid curves are displayed in the inset. The SHG profile for the SinPout case should be compared with the SHG diffraction pattern from the same grating in Fig. 2(b).

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