Abstract

We present modeling and experimental results from the use of a 1310-nm-wavelength through-wafer optical microprobe in conjunction with a microstructure grating to monitor the motion of a lateral comb resonator stage. The optical signal that results from shuttle interaction with the microprobe beam exhibits a peak-to-valley dynamic range that corresponds to 2µm microstructure displacement, facilitating submicrometer positional resolution on digitization. This signal was used to achieve microstructure positional feedback and effective microsystem model parameter extraction, which are essential for structure control and model-based fault detection.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. M. Dickey, S. C. Holswade, L. A. Hornak, and K. S. Brown, Sens. Actuators A 78, 220 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Nelson, P. B. Chu, and K. S. J. Pister, Proc. SPIE 2640, 53 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. A. Hornak, P. Famouri, J. M. Dawson, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 4561, 221 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. J. Garcia and J. J. Sniegowski, Sens. Actuators A 48, 203 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Dawson, J. Chen, K. Brown, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, J. Opt. Eng. 39, 3239 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Dawson, “Integrated through-wafer optical monitoring of MEMS for closed-loop control,” (West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va., 2002).
  7. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Dawson, L. Wang, W. B. McCormick, S. A. Rittenhouse, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, Proc. SPIE 4983, 34 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. M. Dawson, L. Wang, W. B. McCormick, S. A. Rittenhouse, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, Proc. SPIE 4983, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. A. Hornak, P. Famouri, J. M. Dawson, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 4561, 221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Dawson, J. Chen, K. Brown, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, J. Opt. Eng. 39, 3239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. M. Dickey, S. C. Holswade, L. A. Hornak, and K. S. Brown, Sens. Actuators A 78, 220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. R. Nelson, P. B. Chu, and K. S. J. Pister, Proc. SPIE 2640, 53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Garcia and J. J. Sniegowski, Sens. Actuators A 48, 203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, K.

J. Dawson, J. Chen, K. Brown, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, J. Opt. Eng. 39, 3239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, K. S.

F. M. Dickey, S. C. Holswade, L. A. Hornak, and K. S. Brown, Sens. Actuators A 78, 220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Dawson, J. Chen, K. Brown, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, J. Opt. Eng. 39, 3239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. B.

P. R. Nelson, P. B. Chu, and K. S. J. Pister, Proc. SPIE 2640, 53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, J.

J. Dawson, J. Chen, K. Brown, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, J. Opt. Eng. 39, 3239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, J. M.

J. M. Dawson, L. Wang, W. B. McCormick, S. A. Rittenhouse, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, Proc. SPIE 4983, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Hornak, P. Famouri, J. M. Dawson, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 4561, 221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dawson, “Integrated through-wafer optical monitoring of MEMS for closed-loop control,” (West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va., 2002).

Dickey, F. M.

F. M. Dickey, S. C. Holswade, L. A. Hornak, and K. S. Brown, Sens. Actuators A 78, 220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Famouri, P.

J. M. Dawson, L. Wang, W. B. McCormick, S. A. Rittenhouse, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, Proc. SPIE 4983, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Hornak, P. Famouri, J. M. Dawson, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 4561, 221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Dawson, J. Chen, K. Brown, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, J. Opt. Eng. 39, 3239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, E. J.

E. J. Garcia and J. J. Sniegowski, Sens. Actuators A 48, 203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holswade, S. C.

F. M. Dickey, S. C. Holswade, L. A. Hornak, and K. S. Brown, Sens. Actuators A 78, 220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hornak, L. A.

J. M. Dawson, L. Wang, W. B. McCormick, S. A. Rittenhouse, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, Proc. SPIE 4983, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Hornak, P. Famouri, J. M. Dawson, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 4561, 221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Dawson, J. Chen, K. Brown, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, J. Opt. Eng. 39, 3239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Dickey, S. C. Holswade, L. A. Hornak, and K. S. Brown, Sens. Actuators A 78, 220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, W. B.

J. M. Dawson, L. Wang, W. B. McCormick, S. A. Rittenhouse, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, Proc. SPIE 4983, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, P. R.

P. R. Nelson, P. B. Chu, and K. S. J. Pister, Proc. SPIE 2640, 53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pister, K. S. J.

P. R. Nelson, P. B. Chu, and K. S. J. Pister, Proc. SPIE 2640, 53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rittenhouse, S. A.

J. M. Dawson, L. Wang, W. B. McCormick, S. A. Rittenhouse, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, Proc. SPIE 4983, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sniegowski, J. J.

E. J. Garcia and J. J. Sniegowski, Sens. Actuators A 48, 203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. M. Dawson, L. Wang, W. B. McCormick, S. A. Rittenhouse, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, Proc. SPIE 4983, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Hornak, P. Famouri, J. M. Dawson, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 4561, 221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Dawson, J. Chen, K. Brown, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, J. Opt. Eng. 39, 3239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

P. R. Nelson, P. B. Chu, and K. S. J. Pister, Proc. SPIE 2640, 53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Hornak, P. Famouri, J. M. Dawson, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 4561, 221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dawson, L. Wang, W. B. McCormick, S. A. Rittenhouse, P. Famouri, and L. A. Hornak, Proc. SPIE 4983, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (2)

F. M. Dickey, S. C. Holswade, L. A. Hornak, and K. S. Brown, Sens. Actuators A 78, 220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Garcia and J. J. Sniegowski, Sens. Actuators A 48, 203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. M. Dawson, “Integrated through-wafer optical monitoring of MEMS for closed-loop control,” (West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va., 2002).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Grating structure interaction area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Through-wafer optical microprobe setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left, grating structure optical field analysis for 2 µm of stage travel. The corresponding intensity incident upon the detector is shown at the right. disp, displacement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of optical analysis tool output with experimental data at (a) 2 kHz and (b) 2.9 kHz (resonance).

Equations (3)

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Ur=A0W0Wzexp-x2+y2W2z×exp-jkz-jkx2+y22Rz+jζz,
tx,y=exp-jnkts,
hx,y=h0 exp-jkx2+y22d,

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