Abstract

A silicon nitride (SiNx) membrane diffractive optical element (DOE) designed to exhibit beam-splitting and focusing behavior at visible wavelengths has been fabricated and tested. Since the fabrication process is based on silicon micromachining technology, the DOE is easily integrated with a laser diode chip and a photodiode chip on a silicon substrate to function as the hologram-laser-photodiode unit for use in the pickup head of a CD or DVD system. The SiNx film is deposited with low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition and the free-standing membrane is formed by KOH etching. The transmissive DOE showed a high diffraction efficiency (>20% for a binary-phase-level element). The experimental evaluation was in good agreement with the designed and modeled predictions.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
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1998

P. Temple-Boyer, C. Rossi, E. Saint-Etienne, and E. Scheid, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. E. Motamedi, Opt. Eng. 36, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

1991

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

W. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 28, 650 (1989).

Bennion, I.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goodfellow, R. C.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, M. J.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, H.

T. Ito, H. Hayashi, K. Kasazumi, Y. Komma, H. Yamamoto, D. Ogata, S. Nishino, and S. Mizuno, presented at the Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997, Yamagata, Japan, October 27–31, 1997.

Ito, T.

T. Ito, H. Hayashi, K. Kasazumi, Y. Komma, H. Yamamoto, D. Ogata, S. Nishino, and S. Mizuno, presented at the Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997, Yamagata, Japan, October 27–31, 1997.

Kasazumi, K.

T. Ito, H. Hayashi, K. Kasazumi, Y. Komma, H. Yamamoto, D. Ogata, S. Nishino, and S. Mizuno, presented at the Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997, Yamagata, Japan, October 27–31, 1997.

Kearley, M. Q.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kingslake, R.

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1997).

Kirby, C. J. G.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Komma, Y.

T. Ito, H. Hayashi, K. Kasazumi, Y. Komma, H. Yamamoto, D. Ogata, S. Nishino, and S. Mizuno, presented at the Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997, Yamagata, Japan, October 27–31, 1997.

Lee, W. H.

W. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 28, 650 (1989).

Madou, M.

M. Madou, in Fundamentals of Microfabrication, M. Madou, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 163–177.

Mizuno, S.

T. Ito, H. Hayashi, K. Kasazumi, Y. Komma, H. Yamamoto, D. Ogata, S. Nishino, and S. Mizuno, presented at the Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997, Yamagata, Japan, October 27–31, 1997.

Morris, R. C.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, A. J.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M. E.

M. E. Motamedi, Opt. Eng. 36, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, S.

T. Ito, H. Hayashi, K. Kasazumi, Y. Komma, H. Yamamoto, D. Ogata, S. Nishino, and S. Mizuno, presented at the Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997, Yamagata, Japan, October 27–31, 1997.

Ogata, D.

T. Ito, H. Hayashi, K. Kasazumi, Y. Komma, H. Yamamoto, D. Ogata, S. Nishino, and S. Mizuno, presented at the Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997, Yamagata, Japan, October 27–31, 1997.

Ogawa, H.

Rossi, C.

P. Temple-Boyer, C. Rossi, E. Saint-Etienne, and E. Scheid, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Etienne, E.

P. Temple-Boyer, C. Rossi, E. Saint-Etienne, and E. Scheid, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scheid, E.

P. Temple-Boyer, C. Rossi, E. Saint-Etienne, and E. Scheid, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

Temple-Boyer, P.

P. Temple-Boyer, C. Rossi, E. Saint-Etienne, and E. Scheid, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, J.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

T. Ito, H. Hayashi, K. Kasazumi, Y. Komma, H. Yamamoto, D. Ogata, S. Nishino, and S. Mizuno, presented at the Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997, Yamagata, Japan, October 27–31, 1997.

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

P. Temple-Boyer, C. Rossi, E. Saint-Etienne, and E. Scheid, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997

T. Ito, H. Hayashi, K. Kasazumi, Y. Komma, H. Yamamoto, D. Ogata, S. Nishino, and S. Mizuno, presented at the Joint Conference of the Magneto-optical Recording International Symposium and the International Symposium on Optical Memory 1997, Yamagata, Japan, October 27–31, 1997.

Opt. Eng.

M. E. Motamedi, Opt. Eng. 36, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 28, 650 (1989).

Other

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1997).

M. Madou, in Fundamentals of Microfabrication, M. Madou, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 163–177.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication sequence of the optical transmission elements. ICP, inductively coupled plasma.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dimensions of the optical transmission membrane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical micrograph of a SiNx membrane of 5 mm in size. (b) SEM image of a SiNx membrane HOE grating with a period of 1.2 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction effect of a SiNx membrane HOE grating with a period of 1.2 µm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Diffraction Angle and Efficiency of Diffractive Spots

Equations (2)

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zerothorder diffraction efficiency=1/d24 cos2aπ,
±nthorder diffraction efficiency=4 sin21/dmπmπ2sin2aπ,

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