Abstract

We propose a new method for focus tracking during the recording of a sequence of digital holograms while the sample experiences axial displacement. Corrected reconstruction distances can be automatically calculated, and well-focused amplitude and phase-contrast images can be obtained for each digitized hologram. The method is demonstrated for inspection of microelectromechanical systems subjected to thermal load. The method can be applied as a quasi-real-time procedure.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2003

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, Appl. Opt. 42, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

1999

Asundi, A. K.

Baumbach, T.

W. Osten, T. Baumbach, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lett. 27, 1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Seebacker, W. Osten, T. Baumbach, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, F.

Collot, L.

Coppola, G.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, Appl. Opt. 42, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMs (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 125–126.
[CrossRef]

Cuche, E.

De Nicola, S.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, Appl. Opt. 42, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, Opt. Express 9, 294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Lett. 26, 974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMs (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 125–126.
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Ferraro, P.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, Appl. Opt. 42, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, Opt. Express 9, 294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Lett. 26, 974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMs (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 125–126.
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, Appl. Opt. 42, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, Opt. Express 9, 294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Lett. 26, 974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMs (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 125–126.
[CrossRef]

Frauel, Y.

Grilli, S.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, Appl. Opt. 42, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, Opt. Express 9, 294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMs (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 125–126.
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

Guo, C.-S.

Iodice, M.

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMs (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 125–126.
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Jianmin, M.

Jüptner, W.

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Osten, T. Baumbach, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lett. 27, 1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Seebacker, W. Osten, T. Baumbach, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kato, J.-I.

Kreis, T.

T. Kreis, in Holographic Interferometry, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 184–193.

Le Clerc, F.

Lei, X.

Liao, J.

Magro, C.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, Appl. Opt. 42, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMs (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 125–126.
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

Massig, J. H.

Matsumura, T.

Meucci, R.

Osten, W.

W. Osten, T. Baumbach, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lett. 27, 1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Seebacker, W. Osten, T. Baumbach, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, G.

G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1035 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pierattini, G.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, Appl. Opt. 42, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, Opt. Express 9, 294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Lett. 26, 974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMs (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 125–126.
[CrossRef]

Schedin, S.

G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1035 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seebacker, S.

S. Seebacker, W. Osten, T. Baumbach, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stadelmaier, A.

Tiziani, H. J.

G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1035 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-T.

Xiaoyuan, P.

Yamaguchi, I.

Zhang, L.

Zhu, Y. Y.

Appl. Opt.

J. Mod. Opt.

G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1035 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

S. Seebacker, W. Osten, T. Baumbach, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMs (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 125–126.
[CrossRef]

T. Kreis, in Holographic Interferometry, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 184–193.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup of the DH microscope. MO, microscope objective; M, mirror; S, sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Displacement of the sample measured in real time by analyzing the phase shift (inset) of hologram fringes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In-focus amplitude and phase contrast for the cantilever beam from three holograms (a, 1; b, 196; c, 314) of the recorded sequence obtained by applying the focus-tracking procedure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In-focus amplitude reconstruction of a bridge, a, at d=138 mm, by the focus-tracking procedure and, b, at d=100 mm without taking into account the focus change.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wrapped and unwrapped phase-contrast reconstruction, respectively, of the lower MEMS bridge from Fig. 4: a, b, applying the focus-tracking procdure; c, d, without focus-tracking.

Equations (2)

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Δq=-M2 Δp,
Δp=Δφt4πλ,

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