Abstract

We propose a simple method for measuring the gain coefficient of two-beam coupling for photorefractive polymer film. To measure the gain coefficient, we attached a phase grating onto the photorefractive polymer film and made an interference pattern between the transmitted and diffracted beams in the photorefractive film by using an illuminating single beam. The gain coefficient values measured at various external fields by our method showed good agreement with those measured by a standard two-beam coupling method. Compared to standard two-beam coupling, this method exhibited fairly improved stability of the output signal to external factors such as human sounds and airstreams.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

H. Chun, I. K. Moon, D. H. Shin, and N. Kim, Chem. Mater. 13, 2816 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W.-J. Joo, C.-H. Oh, S.-H. Song, and P.-S. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8322 (2001).

1998 (3)

J. Kumar, L. Xi, X L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, R. Bittner, and Y. De Nardin, Opt. Commun. 150, 205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Neumann, S. Mendricks, E. Kartzig, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, Opt. Commun. 146, 220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Mathey, P. Jullien, A. Dazzi, and B. Mazue, Opt. Commun. 129, 301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Lippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bittner, R.

K. Meerholz, R. Bittner, and Y. De Nardin, Opt. Commun. 150, 205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chun, H.

H. Chun, I. K. Moon, D. H. Shin, and N. Kim, Chem. Mater. 13, 2816 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dazzi, A.

P. Mathey, P. Jullien, A. Dazzi, and B. Mazue, Opt. Commun. 129, 301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Nardin, Y.

K. Meerholz, R. Bittner, and Y. De Nardin, Opt. Commun. 150, 205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fomitchov, P.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1996), Chap. 4.

Goulkov, M.

J. Neumann, S. Mendricks, E. Kartzig, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, Opt. Commun. 146, 220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X L.

J. Kumar, L. Xi, X L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joo, W.-J.

W.-J. Joo, C.-H. Oh, S.-H. Song, and P.-S. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8322 (2001).

Jullien, P.

P. Mathey, P. Jullien, A. Dazzi, and B. Mazue, Opt. Commun. 129, 301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kartzig, E.

J. Neumann, S. Mendricks, E. Kartzig, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, Opt. Commun. 146, 220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

J. Kumar, L. Xi, X L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N.

H. Chun, I. K. Moon, D. H. Shin, and N. Kim, Chem. Mater. 13, 2816 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.-S.

W.-J. Joo, C.-H. Oh, S.-H. Song, and P.-S. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8322 (2001).

Krishnaswamy, S.

Kumar, J.

J. Kumar, L. Xi, X L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. S.

J. Kumar, L. Xi, X L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lippelen, B.

L. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Lippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mathey, P.

P. Mathey, P. Jullien, A. Dazzi, and B. Mazue, Opt. Commun. 129, 301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mazue, B.

P. Mathey, P. Jullien, A. Dazzi, and B. Mazue, Opt. Commun. 129, 301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

K. Meerholz, R. Bittner, and Y. De Nardin, Opt. Commun. 150, 205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, L.

L. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Lippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mendricks, S.

J. Neumann, S. Mendricks, E. Kartzig, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, Opt. Commun. 146, 220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, I. K.

H. Chun, I. K. Moon, D. H. Shin, and N. Kim, Chem. Mater. 13, 2816 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murray, T. W.

Neumann, J.

J. Neumann, S. Mendricks, E. Kartzig, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, Opt. Commun. 146, 220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Odoulov, S.

J. Neumann, S. Mendricks, E. Kartzig, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, Opt. Commun. 146, 220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C.-H.

W.-J. Joo, C.-H. Oh, S.-H. Song, and P.-S. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8322 (2001).

Peyghambarian, N.

L. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Lippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

L. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Lippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. H.

H. Chun, I. K. Moon, D. H. Shin, and N. Kim, Chem. Mater. 13, 2816 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, S.-H.

W.-J. Joo, C.-H. Oh, S.-H. Song, and P.-S. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8322 (2001).

Thompson, C. L.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

J. Kumar, L. Xi, X L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volodin, B. L.

L. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Lippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xi, L.

J. Kumar, L. Xi, X L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1993).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Kumar, L. Xi, X L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. Chun, I. K. Moon, D. H. Shin, and N. Kim, Chem. Mater. 13, 2816 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

W.-J. Joo, C.-H. Oh, S.-H. Song, and P.-S. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8322 (2001).

Nature (1)

L. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Lippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. Mathey, P. Jullien, A. Dazzi, and B. Mazue, Opt. Commun. 129, 301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Neumann, S. Mendricks, E. Kartzig, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, Opt. Commun. 146, 220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, R. Bittner, and Y. De Nardin, Opt. Commun. 150, 205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1996), Chap. 4.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the TBCPG setup: ϕ, phase shift between the intensity pattern and an index grating: PG, phase grating; PS, photorefractive sample; Etot, vector summation of space-charge field Esc and external field Eext.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variations of intensities of two diffracted beams when three beams (two diffracted and one transmitted beam) intersect the photorefractive material. The intensity of the diffracted beam was normalized. At an external field of 40 V/µm, both beams increased; at -40 V/µm, both beams decreased.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparisons of gain coefficient values obtained by two-beam coupling with the TBCPG and the standard TBC setups at various external fields.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output signals of the TBCPG and the standard TBC setups under different environmental conditions. The gain coefficient is determined by the total variation of diffracted beam intensity after the beam coupling. Output signals obtained with both methods for 40 s in air, for 20 s in air with the fan turned on, and for 40 s after the fan has been turned off are shown.

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