Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first optical imaging of voltage-clamped cells by second-harmonic generation. For the membrane-staining styryl dye di-4-ANEPPS, we determined the sensitivity of second-harmonic generation to be 18%/100 mV at an excitation wavelength of 850 nm. This sensitivity is significantly better than the optimal 10%/100 mV under fluorescence and further establishes the importance of second-harmonic generation for the functional imaging of membrane potential in living cells.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Göppert-Mayer, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 9, 273 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. R. Shen, Nature 337, 519 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. B. Eisenthal, Chem. Rev. 96, 1343 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. J. R. Sheppard, R. Kompfner, J. Gannaway, and D. Walsh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13E, 100D (1977).
  5. I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, Biophys. J. 50, 693 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. Mohler, Biophys. J. 81, 493 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
  8. I. Ben-Oren, G. Peleg, A. Lewis, B. Minke, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 71, 1616 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and J. Mertz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1685 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, Biophys. J. 80, 1568 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, T. Takamatsu, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 27, 1324 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. T. Yeh, N. Nassif, A. Zoumi, and B. J. Tromberg, Opt. Lett. 27, 2082 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. A. Huang, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 53, 665 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. M. Loew, S. Scully, L. Simpson, and A. S. Waggoner, Nature 281, 497 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. M. Loew, J. Biochem. Biophys. Meth. 6, 243 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. M. Loew, in Fluorescent and Luminescent Probes for Biological Activity, W. T. Manson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1999), p. 210.
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnham, and L. M. Loew, Biochemistry 24, 5749 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Zhang, R. M. Davidson, M. D. Wei, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 74, 48 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. C. Conboy and G. L. Richmond, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 983 (1997).
  22. E. C. Y. Yan, Y. Liu, and K. B. Eisenthal, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6331 (1998).
  23. O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 65, 672 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Penner, in Single-Channel Recording, B. Sakmann and E. Neher, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 3.
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, B. M. Salzberg, A. L. Obaid, and F. Bezanilla, Biophys. J. 47, 71 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, Biophys. J. 80, 1568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and J. Mertz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1685 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

E. C. Y. Yan, Y. Liu, and K. B. Eisenthal, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6331 (1998).

J. Zhang, R. M. Davidson, M. D. Wei, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 74, 48 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. C. Conboy and G. L. Richmond, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 983 (1997).

1996

I. Ben-Oren, G. Peleg, A. Lewis, B. Minke, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 71, 1616 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Eisenthal, Chem. Rev. 96, 1343 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 65, 672 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

Y. R. Shen, Nature 337, 519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).

1988

Y. A. Huang, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 53, 665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, Biophys. J. 50, 693 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnham, and L. M. Loew, Biochemistry 24, 5749 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, B. M. Salzberg, A. L. Obaid, and F. Bezanilla, Biophys. J. 47, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

L. M. Loew, J. Biochem. Biophys. Meth. 6, 243 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

L. M. Loew, S. Scully, L. Simpson, and A. S. Waggoner, Nature 281, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

C. J. R. Sheppard, R. Kompfner, J. Gannaway, and D. Walsh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13E, 100D (1977).

1931

M. Göppert-Mayer, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 9, 273 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Oren, I.

I. Ben-Oren, G. Peleg, A. Lewis, B. Minke, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 71, 1616 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bezanilla, F.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, B. M. Salzberg, A. L. Obaid, and F. Bezanilla, Biophys. J. 47, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchard-Desce, M.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, Biophys. J. 80, 1568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouevitch, O.

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 65, 672 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnham, V. G.

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnham, and L. M. Loew, Biochemistry 24, 5749 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. Mohler, Biophys. J. 81, 493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charpak, S.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, Biophys. J. 80, 1568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).

Cohen, L. B.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, B. M. Salzberg, A. L. Obaid, and F. Bezanilla, Biophys. J. 47, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conboy, J. C.

J. C. Conboy and G. L. Richmond, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 983 (1997).

Davidson, R. M.

J. Zhang, R. M. Davidson, M. D. Wei, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 74, 48 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, M.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, Biophys. J. 50, 693 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dix, J.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenthal, K. B.

E. C. Y. Yan, Y. Liu, and K. B. Eisenthal, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6331 (1998).

K. B. Eisenthal, Chem. Rev. 96, 1343 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluhler, E.

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnham, and L. M. Loew, Biochemistry 24, 5749 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluhler, E. N.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, Biophys. J. 50, 693 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, K.

Gannaway, J.

C. J. R. Sheppard, R. Kompfner, J. Gannaway, and D. Walsh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13E, 100D (1977).

Göppert-Mayer, M.

M. Göppert-Mayer, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 9, 273 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, P. E.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. Mohler, Biophys. J. 81, 493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).

Huang, Y. A.

Y. A. Huang, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 53, 665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, T.

Kawata, S.

Kobayashi, M.

Kompfner, R.

C. J. R. Sheppard, R. Kompfner, J. Gannaway, and D. Walsh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13E, 100D (1977).

Lewis, A.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Ben-Oren, G. Peleg, A. Lewis, B. Minke, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 71, 1616 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 65, 672 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).

Y. A. Huang, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 53, 665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linial, M.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

E. C. Y. Yan, Y. Liu, and K. B. Eisenthal, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6331 (1998).

Loew, L. M.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. M. Davidson, M. D. Wei, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 74, 48 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Ben-Oren, G. Peleg, A. Lewis, B. Minke, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 71, 1616 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 65, 672 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Huang, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 53, 665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnham, and L. M. Loew, Biochemistry 24, 5749 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, B. M. Salzberg, A. L. Obaid, and F. Bezanilla, Biophys. J. 47, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Loew, J. Biochem. Biophys. Meth. 6, 243 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Loew, S. Scully, L. Simpson, and A. S. Waggoner, Nature 281, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Loew, in Fluorescent and Luminescent Probes for Biological Activity, W. T. Manson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1999), p. 210.
[CrossRef]

Malone, C. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. Mohler, Biophys. J. 81, 493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, Biophys. J. 80, 1568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and J. Mertz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1685 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Millard, A. C.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. Mohler, Biophys. J. 81, 493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minke, B.

I. Ben-Oren, G. Peleg, A. Lewis, B. Minke, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 71, 1616 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohler, W.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. Mohler, Biophys. J. 81, 493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Montana, V.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreaux, L.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, Biophys. J. 80, 1568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and J. Mertz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1685 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

Nassif, N.

Obaid, A. L.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, B. M. Salzberg, A. L. Obaid, and F. Bezanilla, Biophys. J. 47, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peleg, G.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Ben-Oren, G. Peleg, A. Lewis, B. Minke, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 71, 1616 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penner, R.

R. Penner, in Single-Channel Recording, B. Sakmann and E. Neher, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 3.
[CrossRef]

Pinevsky, I.

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 65, 672 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richmond, G. L.

J. C. Conboy and G. L. Richmond, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 983 (1997).

Salama, G.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salzberg, B. M.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, B. M. Salzberg, A. L. Obaid, and F. Bezanilla, Biophys. J. 47, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandre, O.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, Biophys. J. 80, 1568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and J. Mertz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1685 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scully, S.

L. M. Loew, S. Scully, L. Simpson, and A. S. Waggoner, Nature 281, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, Nature 337, 519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard, R. Kompfner, J. Gannaway, and D. Walsh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13E, 100D (1977).

Simpson, L.

L. M. Loew, S. Scully, L. Simpson, and A. S. Waggoner, Nature 281, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprecher, A.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, Biophys. J. 50, 693 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takamatsu, T.

Terasaki, M.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. Mohler, Biophys. J. 81, 493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

Waggoner, A. S.

L. M. Loew, S. Scully, L. Simpson, and A. S. Waggoner, Nature 281, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, D.

C. J. R. Sheppard, R. Kompfner, J. Gannaway, and D. Walsh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13E, 100D (1977).

Wei, M. D.

J. Zhang, R. M. Davidson, M. D. Wei, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 74, 48 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, M.-D.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. Y.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuskell, J. P.

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 65, 672 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, E. C. Y.

E. C. Y. Yan, Y. Liu, and K. B. Eisenthal, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6331 (1998).

Yeh, A. T.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, R. M. Davidson, M. D. Wei, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 74, 48 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoumi, A.

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig)

M. Göppert-Mayer, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 9, 273 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Biochemistry

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnham, and L. M. Loew, Biochemistry 24, 5749 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. Mohler, Biophys. J. 81, 493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

I. Ben-Oren, G. Peleg, A. Lewis, B. Minke, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 71, 1616 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. M. Davidson, M. D. Wei, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 74, 48 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, Biophys. J. 80, 1568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Huang, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 53, 665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, Biophys. J. 50, 693 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 65, 672 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, B. M. Salzberg, A. L. Obaid, and F. Bezanilla, Biophys. J. 47, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev.

K. B. Eisenthal, Chem. Rev. 96, 1343 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. J. R. Sheppard, R. Kompfner, J. Gannaway, and D. Walsh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13E, 100D (1977).

J. Biochem. Biophys. Meth.

L. M. Loew, J. Biochem. Biophys. Meth. 6, 243 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Membr. Biol.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, J. Membr. Biol. 130, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and J. Mertz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1685 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

E. C. Y. Yan, Y. Liu, and K. B. Eisenthal, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6331 (1998).

J. Phys. Chem.

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).

J. Phys. Chem. B

J. C. Conboy and G. L. Richmond, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 983 (1997).

Nature

L. M. Loew, S. Scully, L. Simpson, and A. S. Waggoner, Nature 281, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Shen, Nature 337, 519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Penner, in Single-Channel Recording, B. Sakmann and E. Neher, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 3.
[CrossRef]

L. M. Loew, in Fluorescent and Luminescent Probes for Biological Activity, W. T. Manson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1999), p. 210.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

1-(3-sulphonatopropyl)-4-(β-(2-(di-n-butylamino)-6-naphthyl)vinyl)pyridinium betaine (di-4-aminonaphthenyl-pyridinium-propyl sulphonate, or di-4-ANEPPS).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total membrane SHG signal versus time for one image series, which switches from 0 to -100 mV or vice versa after every third data point, for 850-nm excitation of SHG from di-4-ANEPPS (circles), and the interpolated moving average for the 0-mV data points (curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG change versus voltage for 850-nm excitation of SHG from di-4-ANEPPS.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P=χ2EωEω+χ3E̲EωEω=χeff2E̲EωEω.

Metrics