Abstract

We have demonstrated functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT) for neural imaging by detecting scattering changes during the propagation of action potentials through neural tissue. OCT images of nerve fibers from the abdominal ganglion of the sea slug Aplysia californica were taken before, during, and after electrical stimulation. Images acquired during stimulation showed localized reversible increases in scattering compared with those acquired before stimulation. Motion-mode OCT images of nerve fibers showed transient scattering changes from spontaneous action potentials. These results demonstrate that OCT is sensitive to the optical changes in electrically active nerve fibers.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds., Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
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  3. R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, R. Homma, H. Kadono, and M. Tanifuji, Opt. Commun. 202, 47 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2003

S. A. Boppart, Psychophysiology 40, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, R. Homma, H. Kadono, and M. Tanifuji, Opt. Commun. 202, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 27, 2010 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

I. Tasaki, K. Kusano, and P. M. Byrne, Biophys. J. 55, 1033 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blonder, G. E.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Byrne, P. M.

I. Tasaki, K. Kusano, and P. M. Byrne, Biophys. J. 55, 1033 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, L. B.

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hille, B.

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, R.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, R. Homma, H. Kadono, and M. Tanifuji, Opt. Commun. 202, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kadono, H.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, R. Homma, H. Kadono, and M. Tanifuji, Opt. Commun. 202, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keynes, R. D.

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kusano, K.

I. Tasaki, K. Kusano, and P. M. Byrne, Biophys. J. 55, 1033 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaPorta, A.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maheswari, R. U.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, R. Homma, H. Kadono, and M. Tanifuji, Opt. Commun. 202, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Raccuia-Behling, F.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. J.

Slusher, R. E.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stepnoski, R. A.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takaoka, H.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, R. Homma, H. Kadono, and M. Tanifuji, Opt. Commun. 202, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanifuji, M.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, R. Homma, H. Kadono, and M. Tanifuji, Opt. Commun. 202, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tasaki, I.

I. Tasaki, K. Kusano, and P. M. Byrne, Biophys. J. 55, 1033 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

I. Tasaki, K. Kusano, and P. M. Byrne, Biophys. J. 55, 1033 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, R. Homma, H. Kadono, and M. Tanifuji, Opt. Commun. 202, 47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Psychophysiology

S. A. Boppart, Psychophysiology 40, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds., Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The inset shows a light-microscope image of a section of Aplysia californica nerve fiber at 4× magnification. ab, axon bundle; ms, muscle sheath; t, fiber tip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time sequence of fOCT images. Images represent an average of five scans acquired A, before; B, during; and C, 8 min after stimulation. D, plot of the average image pixel intensity over time in a region of interest denoted by the white box in A. Labeled arrows represent when electrical stimulation began (t1), was stopped (t2), and resumed (t3). Brightness in OCT images corresponds to optical scattering.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fast transient scattering changes. A, M-mode fOCT image. The horizontal axis represents time. B, plot of average image pixel intensity over time in the region of interest denoted by the white box in A. C, electrophysiological trace recorded from the nerve fiber imaged in A over the same time scale as the plot shown in B.

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