Abstract

A diffuse near-infrared tomography system was used to measure dynamic changes in the absolute optical properties of the human breast that were induced through pressure applied to the tissue surface. Results from five subjects show that absorption and scattering coefficients changed measurably when pressure was increased and that these relative changes correlated with the subjects’ body-mass index, indicating that the effect depends on tissue composition. Fitting the absolute absorption and scattering coefficients at six wavelengths to the molar absorption spectra of the three predominant chromophores revealed that both the average total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation increased by 10%, while water concentration decreased by more than 12%. These changes indicate that the pressure-induced variation is likely due to water displacement and vascular volume increase in the region being imaged, for mild application of pressure to the breast. These results suggest that the pressure applied during optical measurements of tissue may alter the tissue physiology, and care should be taken to factor this effect into the design of optical medical instrumentation. In addition, the technique provides a unique approach to measuring tissue elastic changes in vivo in the female breast and may offer a new method for dynamic contrast imaging based on elasto-optical measurements.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, and R. L. Barbour, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, and K. D. Paulsen, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 308 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXIV, J. F. Dunn and H. M. Swartz, eds. (Plenum, New York, 2001).
  9. S. Jiang, T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with opto-elastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

2003 (1)

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, and K. D. Paulsen, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, and R. L. Barbour, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, R. L.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, and R. L. Barbour, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Culver, J. P.

T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyley, M. M.

S. Jiang, T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with opto-elastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini, M. A.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaida, G.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giammarco, J.

T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, and R. L. Barbour, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holboke, M. J.

T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jess, H.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, and K. D. Paulsen, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with opto-elastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Kaschke, M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lasker, J. M.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, and R. L. Barbour, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Locker, M.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, and R. L. Barbour, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mantulin, W. W.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McBride, T. O.

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, and K. D. Paulsen, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXIV, J. F. Dunn and H. M. Swartz, eds. (Plenum, New York, 2001).

S. Jiang, T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with opto-elastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Moesta, K. T.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osterberg, U. L.

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXIV, J. F. Dunn and H. M. Swartz, eds. (Plenum, New York, 2001).

Osterman, K. S.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, and K. D. Paulsen, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXIV, J. F. Dunn and H. M. Swartz, eds. (Plenum, New York, 2001).

S. Jiang, T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with opto-elastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Pogue, B. W.

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, and K. D. Paulsen, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXIV, J. F. Dunn and H. M. Swartz, eds. (Plenum, New York, 2001).

S. Jiang, T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with opto-elastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Poplack, S. P.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiang, T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with opto-elastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Schlag, P. M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, C. H.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, and R. L. Barbour, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schnall, M.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seeber, M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wells, W. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zubkov, L.

T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, and K. D. Paulsen, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

S. Jiang, T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with opto-elastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Radiology 218, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, and R. L. Barbour, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXIV, J. F. Dunn and H. M. Swartz, eds. (Plenum, New York, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Typical absorption coefficient and (b) reduced scattering coefficient changes with applied pressure from a human subject and elastic phantom. In both (a) and (b) the open symbols are phantom data and the filled symbols are human data. The circles represent measurements during closing of the array (increasing pressure), and the triangles represent measurements acquired during reopening (decreasing pressure) of the array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot (for each of the five subjects) of the difference in (a) absorption and (b) reduced scattering coefficients (at 785 nm) between the values at maximum pressure, hp, and minimum pressure, p0 (difference denoted as Δhpp0), normalized by the value at p0 as a function of the subject’s BMI.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of percent average (all five subjects) changes in total hemoglobin (HbT), oxygen saturation (StO2), and water concentration between the values at maximum pressure, hp, and minimum pressure, p0, normalized by the value at p0.

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