Abstract

We show that three-dimensional micro-optical components can be embedded in a photosensitive glass by a femtosecond (fs) laser. After exposure to the tightly focused fs laser beam, latent images are written inside the sample. Modified regions are developed by a postbaking process and then preferentially etched away in a 10%-dilute solution of hydrofluoric acid. After this process, hollow internal structures are formed that act as a mirror and a beam splitter. Furthermore, we find that postannealing smoothes the surfaces of the fabricated hollow structures, resulting in great improvement of their optical properties.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Li, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, T. Shinagawa, K. Itoh, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1508 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Express 10, 978 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, J. R. Wendt, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Lett. 26, 286 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. http://www.mikroglas.com/foturane.htm
  10. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, Proc. SPIE 2991, 104 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Helvajian, P. D. Fuqua, W. W. Hansen, and S. Janson, RIKEN Rev. 32, 57 (2001).

2002

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, Proc. SPIE 2991, 104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, N.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, W. W.

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, Proc. SPIE 2991, 104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Helvajian, H.

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, Proc. SPIE 2991, 104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janson, S. W.

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, Proc. SPIE 2991, 104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, M.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shihoyama, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, Proc. SPIE 4830, 576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, Proc. SPIE 2991, 104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Helvajian, P. D. Fuqua, W. W. Hansen, and S. Janson, RIKEN Rev. 32, 57 (2001).

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Homoelle, W. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, E. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, Opt. Lett. 24, 1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, T. Shinagawa, K. Itoh, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Express 10, 978 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, J. R. Wendt, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Lett. 26, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, Opt. Lett. 28, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

http://www.mikroglas.com/foturane.htm

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for examination of the optical property of the micromirror embedded in Foturan. (b) Reflected beam spot from the unannealed structure. (c) Reflected beam spot from the annealed structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning-probe micrographs of the etched internal surface (a) before and (b) after annealing. The horizontal scale and the vertical scale are 5 µm/div and 1 µm/div, respectively, in both (a) and (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micro-optical circuit embedded in Foturan. (a) Micrograph of the sample with its optical path indicated by arrows. (b) Output beam spot, indicated by an arrow.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microbeam splitter embedded in Foturan. (a) Micrograph of the sample with its optical path indicated by arrows. (b) Two divided beam spots, indicated by arrows.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Experimental Data on Average Roughness (Ra), Maximum Roughness (Rmax), and the Diameter of the Reflected Beam Spot (Dia) of Unannealed and Annealed Samples

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