Abstract

A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator and a photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The nonlinear response of the fiber is used to generate the additional wavelength needed in the Raman process. The applicability of the setup is demonstrated by imaging of micrometer-sized polystyrene beads.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. St. J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Nagarajan, E. Johnson, P. Schellenberg, W. Parson, and R. Windeler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4145 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 26, 608 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. O. Potma, W. P. de Boeij, D. A. Wiersma, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elseasser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds., Vol. 66 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 251.
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. O. Potma, D. J. Jones, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 1168 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Volkmer, J. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. This fiber was purchased from Crystal-Fibre A/S (www.crystal-fibre.com).
  12. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2171 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, J. J. Larsen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 140.
  14. C. G. Zimba, V. M. Hallmark, S. Turrell, J. D. Swalen, and J. F. Rabolt, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 939 (1990).
  15. J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277 (2001).
  16. X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 26, 358 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

de Boeij, W. P.

E. O. Potma, W. P. de Boeij, D. A. Wiersma, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elseasser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds., Vol. 66 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 251.
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, J. J. Larsen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 140.

Larsen, J. J.

H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, J. J. Larsen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 140.

Paulsen, H. N.

H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, J. J. Larsen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 140.

Potma, E. O.

E. O. Potma, W. P. de Boeij, D. A. Wiersma, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elseasser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds., Vol. 66 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 251.
[CrossRef]

Thøgersen, J.

H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, J. J. Larsen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 140.

Wiersma, D. A.

E. O. Potma, W. P. de Boeij, D. A. Wiersma, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elseasser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds., Vol. 66 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 251.
[CrossRef]

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (1)

H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, J. J. Larsen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 140.

Springer Series in Chemical Physics (1)

E. O. Potma, W. P. de Boeij, D. A. Wiersma, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elseasser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds., Vol. 66 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 251.
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

E. O. Potma, D. J. Jones, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 1168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

This fiber was purchased from Crystal-Fibre A/S (www.crystal-fibre.com).

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. St. J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nagarajan, E. Johnson, P. Schellenberg, W. Parson, and R. Windeler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 26, 608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Zimba, V. M. Hallmark, S. Turrell, J. D. Swalen, and J. F. Rabolt, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 939 (1990).

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277 (2001).

X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 26, 358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, schematic overview of setup: BS, beam splitter; DM, dichroic mirror; MOs, microscope objectives; PCF, photonic crystal fiber; PMT, photomultiplier tube. Right, the scheme used in CARS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Spectral output from the photonic crystal fiber. (B) Spectrum of the 795-nm oscillator beam used as fiber input and Stokes beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of polystyrene beads on a glass plate. The size of the image is 20 µm×20 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Solid curve (left-hand axis), calculated wavelength of the phase-matched component λPM of the continuum formed in the photonic crystal fiber as the input wavelength λP is tuned. Dotted curve (right-hand axis), corresponding energy difference between λPM and λP.

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