Abstract

Accurate estimation of flow velocity requires measurement of Doppler angle, which is not available in general clinical applications. We describe a novel method of direct Doppler angle and flow velocity mapping that uses a conventional single-beam optical Doppler tomography system. The Doppler angle is estimated by combination of Doppler shift and Doppler bandwidth measurements, and flow velocity is calculated from the Doppler shift and the estimated Doppler angle. In vivo study of lip microvascularization demonstrates that this method is capable of providing both flow speed and flow direction information.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 20, 1337 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. Van Germert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1119 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. D. Fox, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-25, 281 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. P. Davé and T. E. Milner, Opt. Lett. 25, 1523 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. L. Newhouse, E. S. Furgason, G. F. Johnson, and D. A. Wolf, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-27, 50 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ren, K. M. Brecke, Z. Ding, Y. Zhao, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 27, 409 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Piao Q. Zhu, “Quantitation of Doppler angle and flow velocity mapping by combining Doppler shift and Doppler bandwidth measurements in optical Doppler tomography” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  10. D. Piao, L. Otis, N. K. Dutta, and Q. Zhu, Appl. Opt. 41, 6118 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Wolfram-Gabel and H. Sick, Cells Tissues Organs 164, 102 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

Other (11)

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 20, 1337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. Van Germert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Fox, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-25, 281 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Davé and T. E. Milner, Opt. Lett. 25, 1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Newhouse, E. S. Furgason, G. F. Johnson, and D. A. Wolf, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-27, 50 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, K. M. Brecke, Z. Ding, Y. Zhao, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 27, 409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Piao Q. Zhu, “Quantitation of Doppler angle and flow velocity mapping by combining Doppler shift and Doppler bandwidth measurements in optical Doppler tomography” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

D. Piao, L. Otis, N. K. Dutta, and Q. Zhu, Appl. Opt. 41, 6118 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wolfram-Gabel and H. Sick, Cells Tissues Organs 164, 102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Picture of microvascularization of the pars villosa, taken from Ref. 11 (reprinted with permission from S. Karger, AG, Basel), where 1 is a short loop, 2 is a long loop, 3 is the superficial part of the reticular network, and 4 is the deep part of the reticular network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Doppler shift image superimposed on a structural image taken from the pars villosa of the upper lip of a female volunteer. In spot 1, the two regions of blood flow are in opposite directions. (b) Doppler bandwidth image superimposed on structural image. The smaller flow spot 2 is not detected in (a). (c) Doppler angle mapping depicted based on the calculated values with Eq. (1), where the three flow regions in spots 1 and 2 are represented with arrows of different orientations. (d) Velocity mapping calculated by Doppler shift and estimated Doppler angle. Three flow regions in spots 1 and 2 are clearly identified.

Equations (3)

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θ=tan-14πln21NAeffΔf-bf¯,
v=f¯λ2 cosθ.
v=2πln2λNAeffΔf-b.

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