Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a simple technique for the measurement of the magnitude and sign of the chirp parameter of electro-optic modulators, using phase comparison between two optically filtered vestigial sidebands generated from 10-GHz sinusoidal signals. We show the analytical, simulation, and experimental results of this approach.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Koyama and K. Iga, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 87 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. J. Fells, M. A. Gibbon, G. H. B. Thompson, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, A. P. Wright, R. A. Saunders, C. J. Armistead, and E. M. Kimber, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1279 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Lawetz, J. C. Cartledge, C. Rolland, and J. Yu, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 697 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kenmerer, W. J. Winford, and D. T. Moser, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 916 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.
  6. Agere Systems' technical note, TN02–015OCN, March 2002.
  7. M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, Y. Kushino, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 22, 312 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Harder, K. Vakals, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 328 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Koyoma and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 292 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, Electron. Lett. 30, 1336 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Koyama, K.-Y. Liou, A. G. Dentai, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1389 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Yu, L.-S. Yan, Z. Pan, A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WE3.

Bergano, N. S.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Cai, J.-X.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Corbett, P. C.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Davidson, C. R.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Evangelides, Jr., S. G.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Hayee, M. I.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Lenner, G.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Menges, R.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Mills, M. A.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Nissov, M.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Pan, Z.

Q. Yu, L.-S. Yan, Z. Pan, A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WE3.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Ramanujam, N.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Rivers, C.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Sutton, D.

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Willner, A. E.

Q. Yu, L.-S. Yan, Z. Pan, A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WE3.

Yan, L.-S.

Q. Yu, L.-S. Yan, Z. Pan, A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WE3.

Yu, Q.

Q. Yu, L.-S. Yan, Z. Pan, A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WE3.

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (1)

Q. Yu, L.-S. Yan, Z. Pan, A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WE3.

Other (12)

F. Koyama and K. Iga, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 87 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. A. J. Fells, M. A. Gibbon, G. H. B. Thompson, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, A. P. Wright, R. A. Saunders, C. J. Armistead, and E. M. Kimber, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Lawetz, J. C. Cartledge, C. Rolland, and J. Yu, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kenmerer, W. J. Winford, and D. T. Moser, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 916 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cai, M. I. Hayee, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, A. N. Pilipetskii, S. G. Evangelides, Jr., N. Ramanujam, C. R. Davidson, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton, G. Lenner, C. Rivers, and N. S. Bergano, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 4–7, 2000.

Agere Systems' technical note, TN02–015OCN, March 2002.

M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, Y. Kushino, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 22, 312 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Harder, K. Vakals, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 328 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyoma and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 292 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, Electron. Lett. 30, 1336 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyama, K.-Y. Liou, A. G. Dentai, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1389 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring the chirp parameter of optical modulators (MOD) by partial sideband filtering and phase comparison. LD, laser diode; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Analytical results for the relationship between phase difference and the chirp parameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase difference angle θ as a function of modulation depth for different chirp parameter values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of measurement (at the working bias voltage) and computer simulation results for a dual-drive EO LiNbO3 modulator. Here a FFP filter with 8GHz bandwidth and 4.7-GHz detuning is used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Corresponding phase differences and output power at different bias voltages when the driving voltage is applied to one arm of a dual-drive modulator.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eout=E02expjω0t k=-k=+jkJkm1+jkJkm2×exp-jφexpjkωt,
α=m1+m2m1-m2.
I±ω=-2A2+B2 cosωt±θ,
A=J0m1J1m1+J0m2J1m2+J0m1J1m2+J1m1J0m2cosφ,
B=J0m2J1m1-J0m1J1m2sinφ,
tanθ=AB=J0m1J1m1+J0m2J1m2+J0m1J1m2+J1m1J0m2cosφJ0m2J1m1-J0m1J1m2sinφ.
Δ=θ--θ=2θ.
tanθm1+m2m1-m2cotφ2=α cotφ2.

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