Abstract

High-quality retroreflecting fiber Bragg gratings were written in standard Ge-doped telecom fiber (Corning SMF-28) after a few minutes exposure with pulsed 800-nm, 120-fs laser radiation by use of a deep-etch silica zero-order nulled phase mask optimized for 800 nm. Induced index modulations of 1.9×10-3 were achieved with peak power intensities of 1.2×1013 W/cm2 without any fiber sensitization. The fiber gratings are stable and did not erase after 2 weeks at 300 °C. The primary mechanism of induced index change results from a structural modification to the fiber core.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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Dadusc, G.

Davis, K. M.

Delbarre, H.

Douay, M.

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W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and T. Georges, Opt. Commun. 101, 85 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Farley, R. J.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fertein, E.

Georges, T.

W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and T. Georges, Opt. Commun. 101, 85 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Giedl, R.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Goodno, G. D.

Gower, M. C.

S. J. Mihailov and M. C. Gower, Electron. Lett. 30, 707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hidayat, A.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 18, 1277 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirano, M.

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hosono, H.

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, P.-F.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 18, 1277 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawamura, K.-I.

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Kondo, Y.

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 18, 1277 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Mihailov, S. J.

S. J. Mihailov and M. C. Gower, Electron. Lett. 30, 707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

Mitsuyu, T.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 24, 646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

Niay, P.

E. Fertein, C. Przygodzki, H. Delbarre, A. Hidayat, M. Douay, and P. Niay, Appl. Opt. 40, 3506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and T. Georges, Opt. Commun. 101, 85 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nouchi, K.

Przygodzki, C.

Qui, J.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Watanabe, M.

Xie, W. X.

W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and T. Georges, Opt. Commun. 101, 85 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov and M. C. Gower, Electron. Lett. 30, 707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and T. Georges, Opt. Commun. 101, 85 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral responses of FBGs written with the different-order phase masks. Spectra are offset by -10 dB for clarity. (a) Simulated 0.5355µm pitch grating in fiber, L=2 mm, Δn1=8.5×10-4. (b), (c), (d), and (e) are gratings written with the 1.071-, 2.142-, 3.213-, and 4.284µm pitch masks, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of reflectivity and resonant wavelength with the number of incident IR pulses, (300 µJ/pulse, 10 Hz). The squares denote reflectivity; circles, wavelength shift.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reflectivity of a high-order grating written with the 2.142µm pitch mask. (b) Simulated 0.5355µm pitch grating in fiber, L=2 mm, with Δn1 values of (i) =1.5×10-3, (ii) =1.9×10-3, and (iii) =2.2×10-3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographic image of photoinduced index modulation as seen through an optical microscope. The spacing between lines in the image corresponds to the 3.213µm period of the phase mask.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coupling of 800-nm Radiation Into Various Phase Mask Orders

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