Abstract

We show how replacement of a modest fraction of the usual fiber-based dispersion compensation with a periodic-group-delay dispersion-compensating module can result in a drastic reduction in collision-induced timing jitter in dense wavelength-division multiplexing with dispersion-managed solitons. The principal mechanism here is a correspondingly large reduction in the net path over which a pair of colliding pulses interact.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. V. Mamyshev and L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 24, 448 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Xu, C. Xie, and L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 27, 1303 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Shirasaki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1598 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. Buhl, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD FA6-2.
  5. C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 994 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, and J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. Larochelle, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Eiselt, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, Nice, France, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 144–145.
  11. L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 187–189.

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. Larochelle, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 994 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Shirasaki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, and J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ardekani, M.

D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, G.

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. Larochelle, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bigo, S.

G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. Larochelle, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. Buhl, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD FA6-2.

Cao, S.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 187–189.

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. Buhl, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD FA6-2.

Colbourne, P.

D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
[CrossRef]

Cortes, P.-Y.

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. Larochelle, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. Buhl, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD FA6-2.

Eiselt, M.

M. Eiselt, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, Nice, France, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 144–145.

Eiselt, M. H.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 187–189.

Evangelides, S. G.

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, and J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, L. D.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 187–189.

Gauchard, S.

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. Larochelle, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 187–189.

Gordon, J. P.

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, and J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hulse, C. A.

D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
[CrossRef]

Kiran, S.

D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
[CrossRef]

Lamont, M.

D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
[CrossRef]

Larochelle, S.

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. Larochelle, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 994 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 994 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

Mao, C.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 187–189.

McLaughlin, S.

D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
[CrossRef]

Randall, G.

D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
[CrossRef]

Shirasaki, M.

M. Shirasaki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. Buhl, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD FA6-2.

Tkach, R. W.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 187–189.

Xie, C.

Xu, C.

Yang, C.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 187–189.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

M. Shirasaki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. Larochelle, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 994 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, and J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. Buhl, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD FA6-2.

M. Eiselt, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, Nice, France, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 144–145.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 187–189.

D. J. Moss, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, M. Lamont, M. Ardekani, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 132–133.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Group delay of an idealized all-pass, filter-based dispersion-compensating module, designed for a channel spacing of 50 GHz (0.4 nm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative motion in retarded time for a pair of colliding pulses from neighboring channels separated by 50 GHz (0.4 nm). The lower-frequency pulse is at the reference frequency and hence is fixed in the retarded time (at t=0). Thus, the motion of the higher-frequency pulse (sawtooth) is also the relative motion. The map consists of 100-km spans of fiber with D=6 ps/nmkm, and, save for a small path-average dispersion D¯, fractionally compensated f by a period-group-delay device, and 1-f by a DCF module. (For the particular behavior shown here, f=0.2.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency shifts of the lower frequency of two colliding pulses from adjacent channels in the system of Fig. 2, for the indicated values of f; in all cases the channels are copolarized, the effective core area is 50 µm2, D¯=0.15 ps/nm-km, and the spans are backward Raman pumped only.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical eye diagrams at 8000 km in dense WDM with 10Gbit/s channels spaced 50 GHz apart, with all channels copolarized, and with no ASE, for the values of f shown. Top row, lossless fiber; bottom row, with 25%/75% forward/backward Raman pumping. All other parameters are the same as those of the system of Figs. 2 and 3.

Equations (3)

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Lcoll=2τ+τeffD¯interΔλ,
τeff=1-fD+-D¯L+Δλ
lcoll=TD¯interΔλ,

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