Abstract

A balanced cross correlator, the optical equivalent of a balanced microwave phase detector, is demonstrated. Its use in synchronizing an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser and a 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser yields 300-attosecond timing jitter measured from 10 mHz to 2.3 MHz. The spectral overlap between the two lasers is strong enough to permit direct detection of the difference in carrier-envelope offset frequency between the two lasers.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (3)

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ripin, J. G. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 214, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 27, 2121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

Angelow, G.

Ell, R.

Erchak, A. A.

D. J. Ripin, J. G. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 214, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

Fuerst, C.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gopinath, J. G.

D. J. Ripin, J. G. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 214, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grawert, F. J.

T. R. Schibli, L. M. Matos, F. J. Grawert, and F. X. Kärtner, in Ultrafast Phenomena 2002, Vol. 72 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 171–172.

Hall, J. L.

Ippen, E. P.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kärtner, F. X.

D. J. Ripin, J. G. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 214, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 26, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, T. R. Schibli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 882 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, L. M. Matos, F. J. Grawert, and F. X. Kärtner, in Ultrafast Phenomena 2002, Vol. 72 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 171–172.

Kobayashi, Y.

Kobayashi, Z.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

D. J. Ripin, J. G. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 214, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laubereau, A.

Leitensdorfer, A.

Ma, L.

Matos, L. M.

T. R. Schibli, L. M. Matos, F. J. Grawert, and F. X. Kärtner, in Ultrafast Phenomena 2002, Vol. 72 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 171–172.

Morgner, U.

Murnane, M. M.

Notcutt, M.

Petrich, G. S.

D. J. Ripin, J. G. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 214, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

D. J. Ripin, J. G. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 214, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. V.

Scheuer, V.

Schibli, T. R.

F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, T. R. Schibli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 882 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, L. M. Matos, F. J. Grawert, and F. X. Kärtner, in Ultrafast Phenomena 2002, Vol. 72 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 171–172.

Shelton, R. K.

Shen, H. M.

D. J. Ripin, J. G. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 214, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.

Torizuka, K.

Tschudi, T.

Wei, Z.

Whitaker, J. F.

Ye, J.

Zhang, Z.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the synchronized lasers: Cr:fo, passively mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser; Ti:sa, passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser; SFG, sum-frequency generation. All bandpass filters transmit only the sum frequency 1/496 nm=1/833 nm+1/1225 nm. Each of the two beam splitters consists of a thin fused-silica glass substrate coated with a semitransparent metal film. The third correlator is used to generate the graphs shown in Fig. 4 below.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectra of the mode-locked Ti:sapphire and the Cr:forsterite lasers. Dashed curves, the spectra of the individual lasers; shaded region, spectral region used to detect the difference in carrier envelope offset frequency between the two lasers shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Heterodyne beat between the Cr:forsterite and the Ti:sapphire lasers obtained from the spectral region shown in Fig. 2. The two beat signals below the repetition rate of 82 MHz represent the difference in the carrier envelope offset frequencies of the two lasers. The rf-analyzer filter bandwidth is 30 kHz. The noise floor is caused by the uncompensated transimpedance amplifier and poses only a technical limitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Timing jitter determined from the amplitude noise of the sum-frequency generation of the out-of-loop cross correlator (see Fig. 1). The time delay in the correlator was generated by a dispersive medium in front of the sum-frequency generating crystal. The rms jitter measured in a 2.3 MHz bandwidth (BW) yielded a value of 299±104 as. (b) Output of the balanced cross correlator as a function of the difference in time between the two laser pulses.

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