Abstract

A compact, low-cost, prismless Ti:Al2O3 laser with 176-nm bandwidth (FWHM) and 20-mW output power was developed. Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography (OCT) ex vivo imaging in an animal model with 1.2µm axial resolution and in vivo imaging in patients with macular pathologies with 3µm axial resolution were demonstrated. Owing to the pump laser, this light source significantly reduces the cost of broadband OCT systems. Furthermore, the source has great potential for clinical application of spectroscopic and ultrahigh-resolution OCT because of its small footprint (500 mm×180 mm including the pump laser), user friendliness, stability, and reproducibility.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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2002 (3)

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, J. S. Schuman, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelow, G.

Apolonski, A.

Bizheva, K.

Boppart, S. A.

Cassanho, A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

A. M. Kowalevicz, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 27, 2037 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, J. S. Schuman, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 25, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, J. S. Schuman, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grawert, F.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Jensen, H. P.

Kärtner, F. X.

Knight, J.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Lederer, M. J.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Pitris, C.

Povazay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P.

Sattmann, H.

Scherzer, E.

Scheuer, V.

Schibli, T. R.

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, J. S. Schuman, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szipöcz, R.

Torizuka, K.

S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uemura, S.

S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

Vetterlein, M.

Wadsworth, W.

Wagenblast, P. C.

Wintner, E.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram (top) and a photograph (bottom) of the compact, low-cost Ti:sapphire laser. A commercially available compact 158 mm×104 mm 1.5-W pump source is used to pump a standard astigmatism-compensated x-folded cavity. Mp’s; pump mirrors; L, coupling lens; Mc’s, 50-mm folding mirrors; M’s, mirrors; OC; output coupler; CP, compensation plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical optical output power spectra of the compact, low-cost Ti:sapphire laser (top) and interference signal (bottom) corresponding to the spectrum indicated by the solid black curve, resulting in a free-space axial resolution of 1.7 µm, corresponding to 1.2 µm in biological tissue.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ultrahigh-resolution OCT using a compact, low-cost Ti:sapphire laser. A, ex-vivo OCT imaging (1.2 µm×3 µm axial × transverse resolution) of a monkey retina (Macaca fasciularis), depicting all main intraretinal layers, including a small detachment of the retina (arrows). B, in vivo OCT imaging (3 µm×15 µm resolution) of a normal human macula as well as C, a patient with macular hole and D, epiretinal gliosis and vitreomacular traction syndrome. Ultrahigh-resolution OCT permits imaging of retinal pigment epithelium detachment and all main intraretinal layers, especially the photoreceptor impairment (arrows) in these macular pathologies. Bars, (A) 500 µm, (B)–(D) 250 µm.

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