Abstract

Despite widespread use of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, development of endoscopes for nonlinear optical imaging has been stymied by the degradation of ultrashort excitation pulses that occurs within optical fiber as a result of the combined effects of group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. We introduce microendoscopes (350–1000μm in diameter) based on gradient-index microlenses that effectively eliminate self-phase modulation within the endoscope. Laser-scanning multiphoton fluorescence endoscopy exhibits micrometer-scale resolution. We used multiphoton endoscopes to image fluorescently labeled neurons and dendrites.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

2001

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).

J. Knittel, L. Schneider, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).

S. W. Clark, F. O. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 26, 1320 (2001).

2000

1997

W. Denk and S. Svoboda, Neuron 18, 351 (1997).

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).

1996

1995

1990

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, Optik (Stuttgart) 86, 104 (1990).

1983

1965

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 455 (1965).

Bird, D.

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1031 (2002).

Bouma, B. E.

Braun, A.

Buess, G.

J. Knittel, L. Schneider, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).

Clark, S. W.

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Appl. Opt. 41, 2930 (2002).

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).

W. Denk and S. Svoboda, Neuron 18, 351 (1997).

Dickensheets, D. L.

Dlugan, A. L. P.

Fee, M. S.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gmitro, A. F.

Goering, R.

Gu, M.

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1031 (2002).

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, Optik (Stuttgart) 86, 104 (1990).

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Appl. Opt. 41, 2930 (2002).

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).

Ilday, F. O.

Juskaitis, R.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).

Kino, G. S.

Knittel, J.

J. Knittel, L. Schneider, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 455 (1965).

Lane, P. M.

Leiner, D. C.

Lin, C. P.

MacAulay, C. E.

Messerschmidt, B.

J. Knittel, L. Schneider, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).

B. Messerschmidt, T. Possner, and R. Goering, Appl. Opt. 34, 7825 (1995).

Moll, K. D.

Myaing, M. T.

Norris, T. B.

Ouzounov, D. G.

Possner, T.

J. Knittel, L. Schneider, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).

B. Messerschmidt, T. Possner, and R. Goering, Appl. Opt. 34, 7825 (1995).

Prescott, R.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rouse, A. R.

Schneider, L.

J. Knittel, L. Schneider, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, Optik (Stuttgart) 86, 104 (1990).

Shishkov, M.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Svoboda, S.

W. Denk and S. Svoboda, Neuron 18, 351 (1997).

Tank, D. W.

F. Helmchen, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Appl. Opt. 41, 2930 (2002).

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).

Tearney, G. J.

Urayama, J.

Watson, T. F.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).

Webb, R. H.

Webb, W. W.

Wilson, T.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).

Wise, F. W.

Zipfel, W. R.

Appl. Opt.

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 455 (1965).

Neuron

W. Denk and S. Svoboda, Neuron 18, 351 (1997).

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).

Opt. Lett.

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1031 (2002).

Opt. Commun.

J. Knittel, L. Schneider, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optik (Stuttgart)

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, Optik (Stuttgart) 86, 104 (1990).

Scanning

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).

Other

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

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