Abstract

A general dark-soliton solution of the Helmholtz equation (with defocusing Kerr nonlinearity) that has on- and off-axis, gray and black, paraxial and Helmholtz solitons as particular solutions, is reported. Modifications to soliton transverse velocity, width, phase period, and existence conditions are derived and explained in geometrical terms. Simulations verify analytical predictions and also demonstrate spontaneous formation of Helmholtz solitons and transparency of their interactions.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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