Abstract

Using high-bandwidth feedback, we have synchronized the pulse train from a mode-locked semiconductor laser to an external optical atomic clock signal and achieved what is to our knowledge the lowest timing jitter to date (22 fs, integrated from 1 Hz to 100 MHz) for such devices. The performance is limited by the intrinsic noise of the phase detector used for timing-jitter measurement. We expect such a highly stable device to play an important role in fiber-network-based precise time/frequency distribution.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2002 (3)

2001 (3)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 1526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, J.

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delfyett, P. J.

DePriest, C. M.

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etemad, S.

Foreman, S. M.

Grein, M. E.

Hall, J. L.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, K.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 1526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L. A.

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kourogi, M.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.-S.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNeilage, C.

Murnane, M. M.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notcutt, M.

Oates, C. W.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsu, M.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Searls, J.

Shelton, R. K.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobar, M. E.

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 1526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woode, R. A.

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 1526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, T.

Yokoyama, H.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 1526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration used to stabilize the timing jitter of a MLLD to an external clock signal derived from a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser that is phase stabilized to an optical frequency standard. The output signal of the MLLD is phase-sensitively compared against the original clock signal by use of two doubly balanced low-noise mixers. The derived error signals are used for further noise reduction by a fast feedback loop as well as for out-of-loop noise analysis. HV, high-voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral analysis of the fundamental repetition signal of the MLLD under four operating conditions: free-running, passively mode locked; hybridly mode locked with injection of an external clock signal; hybridly mode-locked, with addition of a feedback loop of 200-kHz bandwidth; and with a 5-MHz bandwidth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Analysis of the timing-jitter Fourier spectral density of the MLLD under conditions of hybrid mode-locking with no feedback control, with feedback control but analyzed out of the loop and with feedback control and analyzed in loop. The residual rms jitter is integrated from 10 Hz up to an offset frequency from the 5.98-GHz carrier. The data are obtained with a fast Fourier transform spectrum analyzer (0.01–100 kHz) and a rf spectrum analyzer (0.1–10 MHz). The spikes are harmonics of line noise.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Allan deviation analysis of the residual timing jitter. The calculated Allan deviation is determined from the jitter noise spectral density data displayed in Fig. 3. Direct frequency-counting results are shown by the symbols. Circles, measurement noise floor; squares, MLLD injection locked but without feedback; triangles, MLLD under feedback control.

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