Abstract

Chirped-superlattice quantum-cascade lasers are reported that emit at λ85 µm (3.5 THz), which is to the authors’ knowledge the longest wavelength demonstrated so far with this technology. Collected peak output powers of 1.5 mW per facet were measured at liquid-helium temperature, and a maximum operating temperature of 45 K was reached. Record low-threshold-current densities of 95 and 115 A cm-2 were observed in pulsed and continuous-wave operation, respectively. For the latter, output powers of a few hundred microwatts are estimated at low temperatures.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. S. Williams, B. Xu, Q. Hu, and M. R. Melloch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2927 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 19 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2101 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. S. Williams, B. Xu, Q. Hu, and M. R. Melloch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, N. Finger, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Physica B 272, 216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajili, L.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, G.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finger, N.

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, N. Finger, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Physica B 272, 216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, N. Finger, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Physica B 272, 216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

B. S. Williams, B. Xu, Q. Hu, and M. R. Melloch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilegems, M.

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

B. S. Williams, B. Xu, Q. Hu, and M. R. Melloch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochat, M.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strasser, G.

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, N. Finger, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Physica B 272, 216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, J.

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, N. Finger, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Physica B 272, 216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, N. Finger, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Physica B 272, 216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Willenberg, H.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, B. Xu, Q. Hu, and M. R. Melloch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

B. S. Williams, B. Xu, Q. Hu, and M. R. Melloch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zobl, R.

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, N. Finger, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Physica B 272, 216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, B. Xu, Q. Hu, and M. R. Melloch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Physica B

J. Ulrich, R. Zobl, N. Finger, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, and E. Gornik, Physica B 272, 216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Self-consistent calculation of a portion of the conduction band profile under applied bias of 2.5 kV/cm, showing the squared moduli of the relevant wave functions. The optical transition takes place between the two levels drawn as heavier lines and curves. The layer sequence, starting from the injection barrier, is 4.0/22.3/0.8/16.5/0.6/13.6/2.4/12.2/2.6/12.7/3.3/125/2.8/11.6. All thicknesses are given in nanometers, with layers marked by heavier lines and curves representing Al0.15Ga0.85As barriers; the first 105 nm of the 125-nm-wide GaAs quantum well is doped with Si to 4×1016 cm-3. (b) Computed profile of the lasing mode along the growth direction. The origin of the axis is at the interface between the epilayer and the top metallization. The sharp cut at 12 µm is caused by the bottom contact layer, which simultaneously assists in guiding the light. The overlap of the mode with the stack of active regions is marked by the hatched region and was calculated to be 37%; the concomitant optical loss was 9 cm-1. Inset, schematic view of a processed laser stripe (see text for further information).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

L–I characteristics of a 4.7-mm-long, 180-µm–wide laser recorded in pulsed operation at a duty cycle of 1% with a He-cooled Si bolometer. The bolometer was calibrated against a pyroelectric powermeter by use of the average power of a 4.4-THz QC laser. Peak powers of more than 1.5 mW were reached at low temperatures; 650 µW of power still remained at 30 K. Lasing ceased at 42-K heat-sink temperature. Inset, laser spectrum recorded at a drive current of 1.2 A.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

L–I characteristics of the device shown in Fig. 2 recorded in continuous—wave (CW) operation at a heat-sink temperature of 10 K. The values represent the power collected from one facet with a deuterated triglycine sulfate detector (calibrated against a pyroelectric detector, see text). We estimate the maximum CW output power to be 370 µW after correction for the transmittance of the polyethylene window (0.63). Inset, a single-mode laser spectrum recorded in pulsed mode from a 2.1-mm-long device at a drive current of 570 mA.

Equations (1)

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127951αM2.1+αW=1αM4.7+αW,

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