Abstract

We have developed a holographic polymer dispersed liquid-crystal device based on total internal reflection (TIR). In the field-off state, the holographic planes are slanted such that the angle of the diffraction beam is beyond the TIR angle of the glass substrate. The beam is trapped in the sample and propagates to the edge. In the field-on state, the holographic grating is erased and the incident beam propagates directly through the sample. Contrast ratios of 10 dB, submillisecond response times, and an index modulation of 0.042 at 1550 nm are reported.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 Let. 38, 277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, L. Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, Chem. Phys. 245, 463 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Boiko, J. N. Eakin, J. Vedrine, and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 27, 1717 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1999).
  11. B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2002

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Boiko, J. N. Eakin, J. Vedrine, and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 27, 1717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, L. Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, Chem. Phys. 245, 463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 Let. 38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1989

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ashmead, A. C.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boiko, Y.

Bowley, C. C.

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, L. Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, D. R.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, Chem. Phys. 245, 463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

Y. Boiko, J. N. Eakin, J. Vedrine, and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 27, 1717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, L. Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Danworaphong, S. D.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Date, S.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 Let. 38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Domash, L. H.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eakin, J. N.

Erdmann, J. H.

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Faris, S.

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, L. Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faris, S. M.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fontecchio, A. K.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, L. Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Kato, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 Let. 38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kossyrev, P. A.

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, L. Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. J.

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, L. Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, R. T.

Popovich, M. M.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M. G.

Siwecki, S. A.

Smith, R. T.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Storey, J.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, Chem. Phys. 245, 463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, Chem. Phys. 245, 463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 Let. 38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tomlin, D.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, Chem. Phys. 245, 463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vedrine, J.

Wu, B. G.

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Adv. Mater.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, L. Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Chem. Phys.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, Chem. Phys. 245, 463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 Let.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 Let. 38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the HPDLC (a) in the voltage-off state, where the p-polarized beam experiences TIR at the glass–air interface, and (b) in the voltage-on state, where the grating vanishes, enabling both p and s polarization to pass through unaffected. A scanning-electron microscope image of the slanted grating is shown in (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmittance-versus-voltage curves as a function of sample thickness with a 1550-nm fiber laser (normalized to the saturated transmittance value); the transmission notch shown in the inset was recorded with a near-IR spectrometer. Inset, both s and p polarization and corresponding fit to Eq. (1) for the 30-µm sample. (b) Diffraction efficiency of the TIR beam and the transmittance-versus-voltage curves for the 25-µm sample. Inset, photo of the transmitted light and TIR light projected onto IR sensor cards.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission-versus-voltage curves for 30-µm samples sandwiched between different substrates (normalized to the saturated transmittance value). Inset, dynamic response for a 30-µm sample.

Equations (1)

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η=κ2 sinh2 sLs2 cosh2 sL+Δβ22sinh2 sL,

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