Abstract

Theoretical and experimental investigations have been made of the three-dimensional microchannel fabrication of photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond (fs) laser. Generally, a microchannel fabricated inside glass by the scanning focal spot of a fs laser perpendicular to the direction of laser propagation assumes an elliptical shape with a cross section of large aspect ratio. We demonstrate that one can greatly reduce the aspect ratio merely by inserting a slit, which is oriented parallel to the laser’s scanning direction, before the focusing lens. Computer simulations show that a more symmetrical pattern is obtained in the vicinity of the focal point with the help of such a slit, owing essentially to a diffraction effect.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 93 (1997).
  3. K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 19 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, Opt. Lett. 26, 42 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 277 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, Opt. Lett. 26, 1912 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Kondo, J. Qui, T. Mistsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).
  9. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).
  10. See http://www.mikroglas.com/foturane.htm .
  11. H. Helvajian, P. D. Fuqua, W. W. Hansen, and S. Janson, RIKEN Rev. 32, 57 (2001).
  12. G. Laufer, Introduction to Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1996).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (5)

1999 (1)

Y. Kondo, J. Qui, T. Mistsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 93 (1997).

Aoki, N.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Borrelli, N. F.

Brahmasandra, S. N.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, D. T.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, M. A.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Fuqua, P. D.

H. Helvajian, P. D. Fuqua, W. W. Hansen, and S. Janson, RIKEN Rev. 32, 57 (2001).

Handique, K.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, W. W.

H. Helvajian, P. D. Fuqua, W. W. Hansen, and S. Janson, RIKEN Rev. 32, 57 (2001).

Heldsinger, D.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helvajian, H.

H. Helvajian, P. D. Fuqua, W. W. Hansen, and S. Janson, RIKEN Rev. 32, 57 (2001).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Hirao, K.

Y. Kondo, J. Qui, T. Mistsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 93 (1997).

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 93 (1997).

Itoh, K.

Janson, S.

H. Helvajian, P. D. Fuqua, W. W. Hansen, and S. Janson, RIKEN Rev. 32, 57 (2001).

Jiang, Y.

Johnson, B. N.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juodkazis, S.

Kawachi, M.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Kondo, Y.

Y. Kondo, J. Qui, T. Mistsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, M.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, D.

Laufer, G.

G. Laufer, Introduction to Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Man, P. M.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Mastrangelo, C. H.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuda, M.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Matsuo, S.

Midorikawa, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Misawa, H.

Mistsuyu, T.

Y. Kondo, J. Qui, T. Mistsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 93 (1997).

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 93 (1997).

Miwa, M.

Nishii, J.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 93 (1997).

Qui, J.

Y. Kondo, J. Qui, T. Mistsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sammarco, T. S.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shihoyama, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugioka, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).

Toma, T.

Toyoda, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, W.

Webster, J. R.

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

Yoko, T.

Y. Kondo, J. Qui, T. Mistsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 93 (1997).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kondo, J. Qui, T. Mistsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

RIKEN Rev. (1)

H. Helvajian, P. D. Fuqua, W. W. Hansen, and S. Janson, RIKEN Rev. 32, 57 (2001).

Science (1)

M. A. Burns, B. N. Johnson, S. N. Brahmasandra, K. Handique, J. R. Webster, M. Krishnan, T. S. Sammarco, P. M. Man, D. Jones, D. Heldsinger, C. H. Mastrangelo, and D. T. Burke, Science 282, 484 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

G. Laufer, Introduction to Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructure inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” Proc. SPIE4830 (to be published).

See http://www.mikroglas.com/foturane.htm .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Computer simulations of energy distributions near the laser foci produced by (a) a circular Gaussian beam and (b) and elliptical Gaussian beam with an aspect ratio of 6. Units on both Y and Z axes indicate wavelength. Note that the ranges of the axes are different in (a) and (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micrographs of the fabricated bridgelike microstructures. (a) Side view and (b) cross section of the microstructure fabricated without a slit. (c) Side view and (d) cross section of the same structure fabricated with a slit of 0.5-mm width. The irregular shadow inside the channel was caused by water remaining after etching and cleaning.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Micrograph of a bridgelike microstructure fabricated with a slit of 0.2-mm width: (a) top view, (b) side view, (c) cross section.

Equations (2)

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Ic=11+z2/z02exp-2x2+y2w021+z2/z02,
Ie=11+z2/z021/211+z2/z021/2×exp-2x2w021+z2/z02exp-2y2w021+z2/z02,

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