Abstract

We introduce Cu metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition as a potential means of conformal metal coating of the sidewalls of micromachined vertical mirrors. The optimal process temperature was experimentally found to be 215 °C, which gives high step coverage of better than 90%, and the surface roughness was less than 27 nm. The roughness, measured with an atomic force microscope, will induce a scattering loss less than 0.12 dB, which is small enough for vertical micromirror application. The experimental reflectances of Cu thin film were measured with a distributed-feedback laser (1550 nm) and found to be greater than 0.9 for incidence angles of 22.5° and 45°, and these reflectances were in good agreement with theoretical values.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. S. Lee, L. S. Huang, C. J. Kim, and M. C. Wu, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 7 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, and N. F. de Rooij, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6, 277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. B. Naik, S. K. Lakshmanan, R. H. Wentorf, R. R. Reeves, and W. N. Gill, J. Cryst. Growth 193, 133 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds., Handbook of Optics (MrGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 35.

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, and N. F. de Rooij, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. B. Naik, S. K. Lakshmanan, R. H. Wentorf, R. R. Reeves, and W. N. Gill, J. Cryst. Growth 193, 133 (1988).
[CrossRef]

de Rooij, N. F.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, and N. F. de Rooij, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gill, W. N.

M. B. Naik, S. K. Lakshmanan, R. H. Wentorf, R. R. Reeves, and W. N. Gill, J. Cryst. Growth 193, 133 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gretillat, M. A.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, and N. F. de Rooij, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. S.

Kim, C. J.

Lakshmanan, S. K.

M. B. Naik, S. K. Lakshmanan, R. H. Wentorf, R. R. Reeves, and W. N. Gill, J. Cryst. Growth 193, 133 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

Marxer, C.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, and N. F. de Rooij, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naik, M. B.

M. B. Naik, S. K. Lakshmanan, R. H. Wentorf, R. R. Reeves, and W. N. Gill, J. Cryst. Growth 193, 133 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, R. R.

M. B. Naik, S. K. Lakshmanan, R. H. Wentorf, R. R. Reeves, and W. N. Gill, J. Cryst. Growth 193, 133 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thio, C.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, and N. F. de Rooij, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wentorf, R. H.

M. B. Naik, S. K. Lakshmanan, R. H. Wentorf, R. R. Reeves, and W. N. Gill, J. Cryst. Growth 193, 133 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

M. B. Naik, S. K. Lakshmanan, R. H. Wentorf, R. R. Reeves, and W. N. Gill, J. Cryst. Growth 193, 133 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, and N. F. de Rooij, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds., Handbook of Optics (MrGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 35.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope image of the plane view of the test patterns fabricated on the SOI wafer with deposited metal (a) mesh structures and (b) line-and-space patterns of various widths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscope image of the cross-sectional view of the line-and-space patterns fabricated on the SOI wafer with the deposited metal shown in Fig. 1(b). (a) Corner of the pattern, (b) bottom of the pattern. The buried oxide contributed somewhat to the undercut in the bottom part of the silicon.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Deposition rate of Cu MOCVD according to the substrate temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Step coverage of the deposited film on the top, the sidewall, and the bottom surface (as defined in Table 1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Atomic force microscope image of the surface of Cu thin film deposited by MOCVD at 186 °C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Roughness of the Cu-deposited surface according to substrate temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental (I) and theoretical (dashed curves, TE; solid curves, TM) reflectance of Cu thin film for the wavelength of 1550 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Step Coverage of Cu MOCVD According to Substrate Temperaturea

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