Abstract

We report an investigation of the dependence of the temperature and strain coefficients on the grating type for fiber Bragg gratings that are UV inscribed in B/Ge-codoped fiber with and without hydrogenation. The results reveal that all types of grating exhibit similar strain sensitivities but markedly different temperature sensitivities, greater for gratings inscribed in hydrogen-free rather than hydrogenated fiber and substantially less in type IA gratings than all others. The sensitivity characteristics of these gratings have been used to implement a new type of dual-grating sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain that has properties superior to those of previously reported structures.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 44, 156 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 20, 333 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 1018 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Dong, W. F. Liu, and L. Reekie, Opt. Lett. 21, 2032 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 27, 583 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 44, 156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, W. F. Liu, and L. Reekie, Opt. Lett. 21, 2032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 44, 156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J.-L.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Bernage, P.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brady, G. P.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 44, 156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W. H.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dockney, M. L.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Dong, X. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Georges, T.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V. A.

Ho, S. L.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 44, 156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 44, 156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. F.

Liu, Y.

Monerie, M.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. P.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 44, 156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, W. F. Liu, and L. Reekie, Opt. Lett. 21, 2032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, A. J.

Tam, H. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 44, 156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

Xie, W. X.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Electron. Lett. (3)

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEE Optoelectron. (1)

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 44, 156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of the transmission spectrum of a grating inscribed in (a) hydrogen free and (b) hydrogenated B/Ge-codoped fiber with long UV exposure. The arrows indicate the direction of increasing exposure time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution of the temperature coefficient measured for different types of FBG inscribed in B/Ge-codoped fiber: (a) type IIA gratings, (b) type I gratings in hydrogen-free fiber, (c) type I gratings in hydrogenated fiber, (d) type IA gratings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of a dual-grating sensor employing concatenated type IA and type IIA gratings and spectral response changes in the dual-grating sensor induced by (b) temperature and (c) strain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response of the dual-grating sensor to (a) temperature and (b) strain.

Equations (1)

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Δλ1Δλ2=κT1κ1κT2κ2ΔTΔ,

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