Abstract

An overlay material was deposited by the Langmuir–Blodgett technique onto a single-mode optical fiber containing a long-period grating. The long-period grating exhibits characteristic attenuation bands in its transmission spectrum whose central wavelengths were observed to depend on the optical thickness of the overlay material, even for materials that have a refractive index higher than that of silica.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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2001

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, Sensors Actuators B 74, 74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 25, 1007 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S. W. Kim, and M. S. Kim, Electron. Lett. 35, 2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Flannery, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Appl. Opt. 38, 7370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

1994

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. K. Ghansk, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660 (1987).

1971

Ashwell, G. J.

D. Flannery, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Appl. Opt. 38, 7370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, W. E.

Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

Bucholtz, F.

Charters, R. B.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Costantini, D. M.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Falciai, R.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, Sensors Actuators B 74, 74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, D.

Ghansk, A. K.

A. K. Ghansk, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660 (1987).

Gloge, D.

James, S. W.

Jang, J. N.

J. N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S. W. Kim, and M. S. Kim, Electron. Lett. 35, 2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Kim, M. S.

J. N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S. W. Kim, and M. S. Kim, Electron. Lett. 35, 2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

J. N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S. W. Kim, and M. S. Kim, Electron. Lett. 35, 2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

J. N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S. W. Kim, and M. S. Kim, Electron. Lett. 35, 2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuczynski, A. P.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mignani, A. G.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, Sensors Actuators B 74, 74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muller, C. A. P.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Pilevar, S.

Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shenoy, M. R.

A. K. Ghansk, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660 (1987).

Shiloach, M.

Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sirkis, J.

Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skjonnemand, K.

K. Skjonnemand, “Optical and structural characterisation of ultra thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Cranfield University, Bedford, UK, 2000).

Staines, S. E.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

Thyagarajan, K.

A. K. Ghansk, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660 (1987).

Vannini, A.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, Sensors Actuators B 74, 74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, S. A.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Ye, C. C.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

J. N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S. W. Kim, and M. S. Kim, Electron. Lett. 35, 2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

A. K. Ghansk, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660 (1987).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Lett.

Sensors Actuators B

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, Sensors Actuators B 74, 74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Skjonnemand, “Optical and structural characterisation of ultra thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Cranfield University, Bedford, UK, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental wavelength shift of the central wavelength of the attenuation band corresponding to coupling to the sixth cladding mode as a function of the external medium’s refractive index (R.I.). The curve is a guide to the eye only.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental configuration, showing the LPG within the optical fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental shift in the central wavelengths of the attenuation bands plotted as a function of the thickness of the overlay film. Filled circles, attenuation band corresponding to coupling to the fifth cladding mode; filled squares, attenuation band corresponding to coupling to the sixth cladding mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretically predicted wavelength shifts in the central wavelengths of the attenuation bands plotted as a function of the thickness of an overlay film of refractive index 1.57. Filled circles, attenuation band corresponding to coupling to the fifth cladding mode; filled squares, attenuation band corresponding to coupling to the sixth cladding mode.

Equations (1)

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λi=neffλi-ncladiλiΛ,

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