Abstract

Quasi-phase-matched (QPM) GaAs structures, 0.5 mm thick, 10 mm long, and with 61µm grating periods, were grown by a combination of molecular-beam epitaxy and hydride vapor phase epitaxy. These were characterized by use of mid-IR second-harmonic generation (SHG) with a ZnGeP2 (ZGP) optical parametric oscillator as a pump source. The SHG efficiencies of QPM GaAs and QPM LiNbO3 were directly compared, and a ratio of nonlinear coefficients d14GaAs/d33LiNbO3=5.01±0.3 was found at 4.1µm fundamental wavelength. For input pulse energies as low as 50 µJ and 60ns pulse duration, an internal SHG conversion efficiency of 33% was measured in QPM GaAs.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. B. Ebert, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, J. Cryst. Growth 201, 187 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Koh, T. Kondo, Y. Shiraki, and R. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 227, 183 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.
  5. C. K. N. Patel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 613 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. McFee, G. D. Boyd, and P. H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 57 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 272 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. A. Roberts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2268 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. L. Vodopyanov, F. Ganikhanov, J. P. Maffetone, I. Zwieback, and W. Ruderman, Opt. Lett. 25, 841 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622 (1978).
  13. D. H. Jundt, Opt. Lett. 22, 1553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 302.
  15. Note that the direction of beam propagation and the polarization are aligned with respect to the two orthogonal 011 directions in the wafer plane; in QPM GaAs, both of these beams alternate periodically between and 011 and 01¯1.
  16. D. Zheng, L. A. Gordon, Y. S. Wu, R. S. Feigelson, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, Opt. Lett. 23, 1010 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Arisholm, Proc. SPIE 3685, 86 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Koh, T. Kondo, Y. Shiraki, and R. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 227, 183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

G. Arisholm, Proc. SPIE 3685, 86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Ebert, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, J. Cryst. Growth 201, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

D. A. Roberts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622 (1978).

1976 (1)

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 272 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. H. McFee, G. D. Boyd, and P. H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 57 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

C. K. N. Patel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 613 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Arisholm, G.

G. Arisholm, Proc. SPIE 3685, 86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Becouarn, L.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 272 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, S.

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Boyd, G. D.

J. H. McFee, G. D. Boyd, and P. H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 57 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Choy, M. M.

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, C. B.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Ebert, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, J. Cryst. Growth 201, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eyres, L. A.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Ebert, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, J. Cryst. Growth 201, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Feigelson, R. S.

Fejer, M. M.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Ebert, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, J. Cryst. Growth 201, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Zheng, L. A. Gordon, Y. S. Wu, R. S. Feigelson, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, Opt. Lett. 23, 1010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Ganikhanov, F.

Gerard, B.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Gordon, L. A.

Harris, J. S.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Ebert, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, J. Cryst. Growth 201, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Ito, R.

S. Koh, T. Kondo, Y. Shiraki, and R. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 227, 183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

Kitamoto, A.

Koh, S.

S. Koh, T. Kondo, Y. Shiraki, and R. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 227, 183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

S. Koh, T. Kondo, Y. Shiraki, and R. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 227, 183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulp, T. J.

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Lallier, E.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Levi, O.

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 272 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Maffetone, J. P.

McFee, J. H.

J. H. McFee, G. D. Boyd, and P. H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 57 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 613 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Pikhtin, A. N.

A. N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622 (1978).

Pinguet, T. J.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Roberts, D. A.

D. A. Roberts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ruderman, W.

Scaccabarozzi, L.

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Schmidt, P. H.

J. H. McFee, G. D. Boyd, and P. H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 57 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, Y.

S. Koh, T. Kondo, Y. Shiraki, and R. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 227, 183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shirane, M.

Shoji, I.

Skauli, T.

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

Tourreau, P. J.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wu, Y. S.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 302.

Yas’kov, A. D.

A. N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622 (1978).

Zheng, D.

Zwieback, I.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. McFee, G. D. Boyd, and P. H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 57 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 272 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Roberts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

S. Koh, T. Kondo, Y. Shiraki, and R. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 227, 183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Ebert, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, J. Cryst. Growth 201, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. K. N. Patel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 613 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Arisholm, Proc. SPIE 3685, 86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Semicond. (1)

A. N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622 (1978).

Other (3)

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 302.

Note that the direction of beam propagation and the polarization are aligned with respect to the two orthogonal 011 directions in the wafer plane; in QPM GaAs, both of these beams alternate periodically between and 011 and 01¯1.

T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, T. J. Kulp, S. Bisson, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 138.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. A ZnGeP2 (ZGP) OPO pumped by a 2.8µm erbium laser provides tunable 4µm radiation. Laser and OPO idler beams are rejected by filters F1 (InAs) and F2 (sapphire), respectively. Filter F3 (BK-7 glass) blocks 4µm radiation, and a signal detector collects the emitted SHG radiation. A sapphire beam splitter and a reference detector measure the fundamental pulse energy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nondepleted SHG efficiency versus pump intensity for OP GaAs L=10 mm and PPLN L=6.2 mm at λω=4.135 µm, with fitted straight lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured SH energy in OP GaAs versus pump energy at 4.135 µm for two pump polarizations: along 011 (open circles) and along 111 (filled circles). Dashed curve, simulated results for 011. Insets, two corresponding sample orientations as seen by the beam.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

deff=d14cos2 φ1 cos2 φ2+sin2φ1+φ21/2.
deff=23d141.155×d14.

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