Abstract

We report what is believed to be the first experimental observation of spontaneous nucleation of arrays of optical vortices in the process of second-harmonic generation in a crystal with moderate Poynting vector walk-off, pumped with focused beams containing screw phase dislocations. Our experiments were conducted in lithium triborate under conditions of small-efficiency second-harmonic generation pumped by nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 336, 165 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1991).
  3. N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, Opt. Lett. 17, 221 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ashkin, Opt. Photon. News 10(5), 41 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, Contemp. Phys. 41, 275 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Freund, Opt. Lett. 26, 545 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, Opt. Commun. 103, 422 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Berzanskis, A. Matijosius, A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, and A. Stabinis, Opt. Commun. 140, 273 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. V. Petrov and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. E 58, 7903 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. D. Trapani, A. Berzanskis, S. Minardi, S. Sapone, and W. Chinaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5133 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Molina-Terriza, L. Torner, and D. V. Petrov, Opt. Lett. 24, 899 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. J. Lugt, Vortex Flow in Nature and Technology (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1995).
  17. M. Vaupel and C. O. Weiss, Phys. Rev. A 51, 4078 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. T. Malos, R. Dykstra, M. Vaupel, and C. O. Weiss, Opt. Lett. 22, 1056 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Rozas and G. A. Swartzlander, Opt. Lett. 25, 126 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 48, 1573 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

I. Freund, Opt. Lett. 26, 545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, Contemp. Phys. 41, 275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Rozas and G. A. Swartzlander, Opt. Lett. 25, 126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

D. V. Petrov and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. E 58, 7903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Trapani, A. Berzanskis, S. Minardi, S. Sapone, and W. Chinaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Berzanskis, A. Matijosius, A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, and A. Stabinis, Opt. Commun. 140, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Malos, R. Dykstra, M. Vaupel, and C. O. Weiss, Opt. Lett. 22, 1056 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Vaupel and C. O. Weiss, Phys. Rev. A 51, 4078 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, Opt. Commun. 103, 422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1991).

1974 (1)

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 336, 165 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, Contemp. Phys. 41, 275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, Opt. Photon. News 10(5), 41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Basistiy, I. V.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, Opt. Commun. 103, 422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bazhenov, V. Y.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, Opt. Commun. 103, 422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bazhenov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1991).

Berry, M. V.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 336, 165 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Berzanskis, A.

P. D. Trapani, A. Berzanskis, S. Minardi, S. Sapone, and W. Chinaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berzanskis, A. Matijosius, A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, and A. Stabinis, Opt. Commun. 140, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chinaglia, W.

P. D. Trapani, A. Berzanskis, S. Minardi, S. Sapone, and W. Chinaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dykstra, R.

Freund, I.

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heckenberg, N. R.

Lugt, H. J.

H. J. Lugt, Vortex Flow in Nature and Technology (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1995).

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malos, J. T.

Matijosius, A.

A. Berzanskis, A. Matijosius, A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, and A. Stabinis, Opt. Commun. 140, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R.

Minardi, S.

P. D. Trapani, A. Berzanskis, S. Minardi, S. Sapone, and W. Chinaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, L. Torner, and D. V. Petrov, Opt. Lett. 24, 899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 336, 165 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, Contemp. Phys. 41, 275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D. V.

Piskarskas, A.

A. Berzanskis, A. Matijosius, A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, and A. Stabinis, Opt. Commun. 140, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rozas, D.

Sapone, S.

P. D. Trapani, A. Berzanskis, S. Minardi, S. Sapone, and W. Chinaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smilgevicius, V.

A. Berzanskis, A. Matijosius, A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, and A. Stabinis, Opt. Commun. 140, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. P.

Soskin, M. S.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, Opt. Commun. 103, 422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1991).

Stabinis, A.

A. Berzanskis, A. Matijosius, A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, and A. Stabinis, Opt. Commun. 140, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Staliunas, K.

K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 48, 1573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, L. Torner, and D. V. Petrov, Opt. Lett. 24, 899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Petrov and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. E 58, 7903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trapani, P. D.

P. D. Trapani, A. Berzanskis, S. Minardi, S. Sapone, and W. Chinaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, Opt. Commun. 103, 422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1991).

Vaupel, M.

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, C. O.

White, A. G.

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, Contemp. Phys. 41, 275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1991).

Nature (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, Opt. Commun. 103, 422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Berzanskis, A. Matijosius, A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, and A. Stabinis, Opt. Commun. 140, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

A. Ashkin, Opt. Photon. News 10(5), 41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 48, 1573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Vaupel and C. O. Weiss, Phys. Rev. A 51, 4078 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. V. Petrov and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. E 58, 7903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. D. Trapani, A. Berzanskis, S. Minardi, S. Sapone, and W. Chinaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 336, 165 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. J. Lugt, Vortex Flow in Nature and Technology (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1995).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Observed light distributions. Top row, fundamental-frequency pump beam after propagation inside the crystal; second row, generated second-harmonic beam; third row, interferogram of the generated second-harmonic beam with a tilted reference plane wave; bottom row, illustration of the location and charge of the optical vortices observed in the second-harmonic beam. Positive (negative) vortices, such as those in the pump beam, are shown by filled (open) circles. The pump beam was focused on the input face of the crystal with a waist of approximately (a) 120 µm, (b) 70 µm, (c) 50 µm, and (d) 35 µm. Images were taken by a CCD camera placed 25 cm behind the LBO crystal. The actual scale of the figures is 8 mm×6 mm. The input peak power in all cases was kept at 100 W.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Top) interferograms of the second-harmonic beam and (bottom) locations and charges of the vortices. All features are as in Fig. 1. In (a) the waist of the input beam was located 5 mm in front of the LBO crystal. In (b) the crystal was rotated by a fraction of a degree relative to the orientation for highest second-harmonic-generation efficiency.

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